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one plus 5t price in india electric cutter



one plus 5t price in india electric cutter



one plus 5t price in india electric cutter



Zoomer Radio has a contest to win a trip for two to Texas. Alternative version as clear Exploded-component Drawings. Includes a Wiring Diagram.



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Win a Valentine's Day prize pack from MusicVaultz. Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly exhausted, leading to "oil booms" in Texas, Oklahoma, and California. The hole as drilled by the drill bit. One plus one mobile price in india and features The "transition" booklet when Myford took over manufacture in Enter to win a year's supply of natural deodorant from WILL. Parks Canada has a Discover Canada contest to win a 6-night trip for four to Canada's west coast.





Oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation. Unfortunately there appear to have been no "Manuals" produced by the company for their range of older flat-belt drive Precision plain-turning and screwcutting lathes, nor for the watchmakers' lathes. Vistana is giving away four vacation experiences this year, starting with a Showtime in NYC giveaway.









Producing formation, or that formation which represents the objective of drilling. The best-known such method is the Fischer-Tropsch process. A fist-class, perfectly prepared publication that is essential reading for this relatively complex lathe. Operating Manual and Electrical System. Electrical drawings and many useful Sectional Drawings. Air-bearing Flute Grinding Attachment.







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25.03.2018 - Operator's Instruction and Maintenance hand book. Weddingbells has a contest to win an one-night stay with the Royal Treatment at the Ritz-Carlton Montreal. We are targeting exploratory plays with large acreage positions and multi-million barrel of oil equivalent reserves. The hole as drilled by the drill bit. One edition has English text, the other English, French and German. Well drilled for oil and gas within a proven field or area for the purpose of completing the desired pattern of production.









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04.02.2018 - This month you could win a sweater signed by Nazim Kadri from Leafs Nation. Operating Instructions including the separate "Mounting Instructions" Manual. Win a goTenna mesh prize pack from The Gate. Simple Instruction Manual and Parts Manual. Jays fans can win a trip to Toronto for opening day from Honda. Includes two electrical diagrams. As a complete background guide to these lathes and how they function, this is the most complete publication ever issued.









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30.01.2018 - Front-Operated Semi-automatic Chucking Lathe. Detailed Operator's Instruction Manual. English and French language editions available. Two editions included in English and German.









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03.03.2018 - Pump is powered by CAT D diesel engine. Best if you're in the GTA. Sales and Specification catalogue but contains the essential table of angular divisions. Jones and Shipman 60 page Tool and Cutter Grinding.











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The manuals contain, amongst other things: These show all versions of the open flat-belt drive and geared-headstock types. Original Model with the two spindle-speed control levers on top of the headstock.



Marked either or rpm top speed. Contains sections with English, French and German text. Includes French and German language sections. A comprehensive Data Pack with both early and late editions of the Instruction and Maintenance Manual and both early and late Parts Manuals as exploded component diagrams.



Covers all models with Imperial or Metric gearboxes and including electrical, variator and drive differences. Two electrical diagrams UK market that are greatly enlarged for clarity and a copy of the Chipmaster Sales, A ccessories and Specification Catalogue.



A fist-class, perfectly prepared publication that is essential reading for this relatively complex lathe. No proper handbook was published until a small A5 edition, complete with a photographic parts list, of the late s.



Unfortunately even this was not complete, as it lacked the comprehensive screwcutting data of the later, larger editions though the screwcutting arrangement was, actually, identical.



Therefore, I have put together a pack of data of everything that is known: Round-headstock model but with either a "sliding-lever" on the apron to engage the power feeds or a centrally-mounted single lever control.



A specially assembled Data Pack that gives all known data for these popular lathes comprising: Colchester Student and Master Mk. Includes a copy of the maker's Technical Specification, Sales and Accessories catalogue.



This is the comprehensive page edition. Shows both the left-hand American and right-hand English aprons and includes the carriage-mounted "Trav-a-dial" parts list. Includes a wiring diagram of the rear of the control panel.



A complete page data pack covering all models from the late s on either separate cast-iron plinths or on the later early s full cabinet stands. The literature includes a copy of the first Triumph Operation and Parts Manual originally in A5 format and the later A4 edition covering all models from first to last including the later single-slot safety apron types and all gearbox variants - Standard, Dominion and Continental - as well as the rarer 3rd-shaft control and Hydraulic-copying models.



Includes full screwcutting charts, electrical schematics and several copies of the maker's sales and Specification catalogues dated s to s. This version includes both early and late models with different clutch types, apron modifications, etc.



Also includes extra sections detailing the accessories together with exploded parts diagrams for the: Covers both the early and late models with complete spares lists for both types.



This version has full details in English, French and German. Includes sections on the accessories: Details of the wiring harness cabling specifications, an electrical schematic for the relay board, schematics and constructional details of the headstock push-button assembly, Electrical schematics and layout diagrams of the apron control panels, constructional and layout details of the electrical enclosure assembly, etc.



The two lathes were identical apart from centre height, spindle bore, spindle nose and speeds - the Model "" having a top speed of r. Operation and Parts Manual. Available in English, French or German.



A complete collection of all the literature ever produced for these models Operator's Instruction Manual and Spares as Sectional Drawings. A complete listing of accessories, cutters, milling tools, facing attachments, clamping fixtures, work-holding fixtures, accessories.



Diaphragm Models including the older Models.. Operating Instructions and Sectional Parts Drawings. Instruction Manual and Parts as Sectional Drawings. Used for verifications of diameter, roundness and taper of plug and ring gauges.



Instruction and Maintenance Manual with Electrical Diagrams. Detailed Operating and Maintenance Manual pc. A complete data pack compendium for Coronet products consisting of: This shows the assembly of the machine and the many accessories and how to mount them correctly and safely.



A full manual for the Minor and Minorette. A very interesting booklet: A collection early and late Coronet advertising literature including the Major and Minor lathes, the Minorette Woodworking Centre and the Minorette "in-one".



These show the mounting of each accessory including: A compendium of every known publication for these models. Maker's Assembly and Instruction Manual with exploded component diagrams.



Highly detailed, page, copiously-illustrated large-format edition that gives complete data, with in stage-by-stage illustrations, of how to operate, dismantle and service these units manufactured by Herbert.



Craftsman 6-inch Lathe Mk. A complete Data Pack consisting of: Also included are detailed Craftsman and Atlas advertisements detailing the technical specification and accessories - the main elements of these publications being the more informative Atlas publications.



While the ordinary manual has just 8 pages this is a complete pack with 62 pages. Includes a copy of the Sales and Specification catalogue. Operating Manual and Illustrated Spares Sheets for all models: This edition is for the very early metal-turning lathe with the multiple V-belt drive.



It was also sold with "Atlas" and "Metalmaster" badges. Click here for pictures Various Models including: A complete package of information that covers all models from the original s lathe a clone of the Atlas inch to last version in Click This model was identical to the Atlas inch and sometimes branded as the "Commercial".



It is also found with the following and probably additional Model Numbers: Pictures can be found here: Includes the first-edition, beautifully illustrated Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue No.



Includes a copy of the original Sales and Specification catalogues Atlas and Craftsman that show all versions of the miller, give detailed specifications, illustrate the extensive accessory range and give accurate descriptions of the construction, parts and controls.



Published from the s to the s. Assembly, Operating and Illustrated Parts Manual. Parts List as useful Sectional Drawings. Operating and Setting Manual. Operator's Manual - French text.



Spare Parts Manual as useful and detailed Sectional Drawings. A compendium of all available Cromwell literature including a Sales and Specification catalogue for the 4-inch Mk. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual with.



Electrical drawings and many useful Sectional Drawings. Brief page Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual with. Includes a wiring diagram. Parts as Sectional Drawings and Electrical Schematics.



Owner's manual with electrical schematics. Includes a copy of the maker's page Sales and Specification Catalogue. This milling machine was identical to the one badged as the "Archdale No. If you have a Cunliffe and Croom milling machine it's almost certain to be a "No.



Jones and Shipman 60 page Tool and Cutter Grinding. Explanatory Booklet, which details the principles, which must be adhered to for successful operation of a Tool and Cutter Grinder.



Details specific examples with wonderful photographs and explanations. Instructions are also applicable to other makes of grinder. Highly detailed and comprehensive screwcutting instructions and charts, Installation instructions, Lubrication requirements and oil types from different makers of the period, Operation Instructions, Basic adjustments, General description, Detailed specification, Electrical equipment, Wiring Diagram, Additional Equipment, Special equipment, Annotated photographs of controls.



Illustrated Parts Manual with complete high-quality Sectional Drawings of the whole machine. Parts Manual as high-quality Sectional Drawings. Tools and equipment list.



Parts Manual as Exploded Component Diagrams. Operating and Maintenance Notes. Includes a useful Technical Sales and Specification catalogue. Includes a wiring schematic. Parts Manual as Sectional and Exploded-component Drawings.



Instruction Manual for Machines with capacity 1. Basic Assembly, Operator's Instruction, Lubrication and some sectional drawings. Parts Manual as Sectional Drawings and a set of electrical schematics.



The parts section is incomplete and in poor condition but the drawings are readable. Operating Instructions with an electrical schematic. Installation and Operator's Instruction Manual. English, French and German Text.



Operator's Instruction and Maintenance manual with many useful Sectional Drawings. Instruction Manual with electrical diagrams. Detailed description of the Company's development. Includes a comprehensive factory tour showing the entire production process from casting to final testing.



These lathes have simple lever control of spindle speeds and screwcutting gearbox changes. Two publications in one. Simple Instruction Books with Screwcutting Charts and clutch-adjustment instructions.



Includes a copy of the interesting and detailed Maker's Sales and Specification catalogue. Includes an electrical schematic and a copy of the maker's comprehensive Technical Sales and Specification catalogue Model 13 x 30 and A complete data pack for these popular lathes: Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual - three editions in one covering both early and late models, their different gearboxes and the special features of the 17T together with a Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



Operation and Maintenance manual and Parts as sectional drawings. Includes a copy of the comprehensive page Sales and Technical Specification Catalogue. Alternative version as clear Exploded-component Drawings.



Also included is the special Deckel publication "SO Model: Notes on Disassembly and Reassembly - Spare Parts as sectional Drawings ", a copy of the maker's comprehensive Sales and Accessories Catalogue and all the extracts from the "Deckel Technical Bulletins" that dealt with these machines.



Very comprehensive instructions include cutter profiles, tool angles, cutting speeds, how to grind back rack angles, pointed cutters, tapered cutters, twist-drill grinding attachment, single lip cutters, grinding straight-toothed cylindrical or tapered two-lip or three-tooth cutters with concentric or off-centre radii.



Son Affutage et Ses Applications: Includes the useful and detailed technical Sales and Specification Catalogue. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual including accessories for the early model with demountable change-gears to vary the table-feed rates and levers for the spindle speeds.



Contains essential horizontal and vertical bearing adjustment Manual. Although an English-language edition, a couple of German-text pages have crept in as well. This early manual was rather thin so also included is the much more comprehensive manual for the Mk.



Not a Manual, but a very useful page publication that shows, using superb photographs, the extent of the FP1's versatility. This is the complete, later edition with extra pages on adjusting and dismantling the special boring and high-speed heads.



Parts Manual as Detailed Sectional Drawings. Operating Manuals and Parts Manuals are available for each type. Includes a copy of the detailed, profusely illustrated and very interesting page FP2 Sales, Technical Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



Three manuals are available: Detailed Operator's and Maintenance Manual including a section on the accessories. Includes a copy of the maker's useful page Technical Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



Operating, Servicing, Lubricating and Disassembly and Reassembly Instructions; includes a copy of the maker's useful page Technical Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



A very useful adjunct to the Instructions and Illustrated Parts Manuals listed above. Operator's Instruction, Maintenance and Disassembly Instructions. Detailed Instruction and Maintenance Manual.



Operating and Maintenance Manual with Dismantling Instructions. Not a Manual but contains useful operating data, charts and details of accessories and how to mount them - includes two additional separate Sales and Specification sheets.



Detailed and incredibly useful advice - based on customer feedback - about getting the best from a wide range Deckel machine tools: Wonderful photographs and diagrams. Operators Briefing Cards 56 showing all control functions.



Includes an electrical schematic and a comprehensive Sales and technical Specifications catalogue. Includes a data manual giving Recommended Honing Speeds and Honing Stone Pressures together with a large collection 60 page of sales and Technical Specification catalogues covering the types: English, Italian, French and German Text.



Included is a set of the rare "Special Attachment" Booklets that were not printed in the Standard Manual: Detailed 2-page Instruction Booklet for the 4-position Carriage Stop.



Detailed 2-page Instruction Booklet for the Tachometer Fitting. Vertical, Horizontal and Horizontal with Vertical Head. Also covers the and versions - but not the latter's variable-speed table drive system.



Excellent 64 page book titled "Getting the Most out of Your Lathe" - covers all the elements of Woodturning from the simple to the advanced with chapters on basic metal turning and spinning. Includes a detailed 5-page technical Sales and Specification and Accessories catalogue for the and models and a manual showing how to assemble the stand and countershaft.



Applicable to any wood lathe, not just Delta. Instruction Book and Parts as Sectional Drawing. Models, and Model with inch capacity. Instruction Manual with Parts as Exploded component Pictures.



Models and Models and Metal and Wood capability. In English or Spanish. Models, , , , , , , , , , , Bench Oscillating Spindle Sander. Model Type 2. Model single-phase and Model three-phase.



Instructions, Electrical Diagrams and Parts. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Guide. Parts Book as Exploded Component Drawings. Daldi e Matteucci Operation manual with Electrical Schematics.



No proper manual was produced for this machine but the makers issue three drawings: A Drawings showing the lubrication requirements and one with sections showing the necessity of removing the table winding hand le during certain operations.



The drawings plus a sales and Technical Specification catalogue: Installation, Programming and Maintenance Manual. Comprehensive Instruction and Maintenance Manual: Includes a copy of the Sales and Specification Catalogues.



Slim Operator's Instructions with Electrical Diagrams. This is a less-than-perfect copy but still readable and useful. In order to cover all the models this publication is made up of several editions including those for the 2B, 3B, 4B, etc.



Covers all 3H versions, No. These have been scanned at very high resolution, enlarged for perfect clarity and spread over sheets. Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual This is the much larger and highly detailed edition covering: Covers all K Models 3K, 3K, 4K, 5K etc where the first digit is the spindle diameter and the second number the table length.



Covers all K types. Description, Computer and Interface and Magnetics. The full manual as issued with new machines. Programmer's and Operator's Reference Manual. English and French Text. Grinding Wheel Forming Machine.



Includes Programming Examples for lathes and millers. Front-Operated Semi-automatic Chucking Lathe. How to use a Dividing Head. A set of clear instructions, based on the Myford unit but applicable to any make, showing how to use the plates and position the sector arms, etc.



If unsure, send a photograph to tony lathes. Late Model Machine made by Harrison in the UK Late-model with a very "square-edged headstock", large sheet-aluminium covers embossed with "speeds and feeds" and a screwcutting operated only by rotary lever controls no sliding lever.



Picture of the lathe type here: Early model with three downward-pointing spindle-speed controls levers. Operator's Instruction, Maintenance and Parts as Sectional drawings. Operator's Instruction, Maintenance and Lubrication Manual.



Set-up and Operation Instructions. Instruction and Illustrated Parts Manual. A complete Data Pack with Maintenace and Operating Instructions together with a set of very detailed, well-illustrated catalogues showing all the various models, their accessories and how the many and varied attachments are used.



Data Pack consisting of: Operator's and Maintenance Manual with the special "Service Drawings" originally a separate publication, a second, more concise edition and a copy of the maker's comprehensive Sales, Technical Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



Illustrated Parts Manual with Exploded Assembly Diagrams of the entire machine showing the construction and assembly methods and complete Electrical Schematics. Working Instructions for building the Mk.



Engineering Drawings to manufacture the large capacity 5" fixed steady with 4 jaws. Adaptable to any lathe. Parts Manual as sectional drawings. Operator's Instruction Manual and Clear descriptions of the advantages of "point relieving" and "point thinning".



Includes a copy of the maker's detailed Technical Sales and Specification Catalogue. Operating Manual with Gear Schedules and Charts. Instruction Book with large Electrical Schematic.



Includes a copy of the maker's Technical Sales and Specification sheet. Electrical Manual with Schematics and Supplementary Data. Operating Instructions with maker's Sales and Specification Catalogue.



Not a manual but a useful Catalogue collection comprising: A complete data pack for the machine containing all known literature. Contains details of the essential headstock bearing adjustment technique a study of which will enable you to dismantle the headstock safely.



The "transition" booklet when Myford took over manufacture in Drummond Very early lathes: Hints to Purchases of Lathes - text only. Sales and Specification Booklet. An interesting Works Booklet showing examples of Models and other projects by amateurs demonstrating the versatility and capacity of the Flat and Round-bed lathes.



American Drummond Catalogue showing flat and round-bed models and accessories. DB Drummond Mk,1 flat-bed with leadscrew down centre of bed useful set of 30 dimensioned drawings showing most parts.



No manual was ever issued but the following are available: Includes copies of the Technical Sales and Specification and Accessories catalogues. Includes a copy of the maker's Technical Sales and Specification Catalogue.



Not perfect, but a readable copy. The manual is missing the first 15 pages and was originally printed on heavy-duty lavatory paper - hence the quality is only just acceptable.



Two editions included covering the models with twin round column supports and the - arranged as a conventional vertical milling slide. Instruction Manual and three detailed technical-specification catalogues.



Operation Instructions and Parts as a Sectional Drawing. Instruction Manual and Exploded-Parts Diagrams. Includes a copy of the useful Technical Sales and Specification Catalogue and a set of can charts.



Detailed setting up and Maintenance Manual with Parts Manual as exploded component diagrams. Unfortunately no manual appears to have been issued for these machines but there is an interesting collection of Sales and Specification Catalogue available for the early and late Standard and Heavy Duty Models 1, 2, 2a, 3, 3A, 4, 4A, 5, 6; the Model in Mk.



This collection represents the complete data set for these machines. Parts book for the Ebosa S. Grenchen M Turning and Thread Chasing machine. With instructions for making cams, including a section of charts for the determination of degrees of non-productive travels.



Also includes drawings of fittings, toolholders, regulating devices for cutting tools, cam drawings, dimensions and positions of cam levers for cams, many tables including those for micro-stop setting pin positions, turning feeds in millimetres per rev, recommended cutting speeds and worked examples.



Very detailed User's Hand book describing correct operation, setting up jobs, holding awkward jobs, machining forces, installation, construction, maintenance, etc. User Instructions and Maintenance.



Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Hand book. If you are unsure what you have email: Covers early and late examples two manuals are included and the different drive systems of the 2.



Instructions for adjusting and operating with exploded components drawing. Because a number of models were produced a complete Data Pack has been gathered for these types consisting of: Includes two maker's Sales and Specification Catalogues.



Instruction Manual including Parts Listing and 6 Blueprints. Operator's Instruction and Service Manual with a wiring diagram. Includes copies of the only two known English-language Sales and Technical Specification Catalogues - an additional 18 pages.



Operations and Spare Parts Manual. One edition has English text, the other English, French and German. Includes full screwcutting charts for the threading attachment. Operator's Instruction Manual and Maintenance.



We have very large selection of original literature available covering most models. Please e-mail for details. Enlarged from the tiny original. A very comprehensive, high quality Data Pack including the Operation and Maintenance Manual covering the lathe and the use of accessories in great detail.



Full explanatory texts with clear diagrams of how to get the best from the lathe and its attachments. Exploded Parts diagrams of the lathe and every accessory. Includes several very useful contemporary Sales and Specification Catalogues showing the full technical specification and accessories not covered in the Manual.



The early versions of this lathe were issued with a small-format handbook of very limited usefulness; this later edition covers the use of those first models as well. Also available with German text.



Very comprehensive, full-size edition with detailed instructions together with an Illustrated Parts Manual showing Exploded Assembly Diagrams. English and German text. Includes a copy of the maker's comprehensive Sales and Specification Catalogue illustrating all the many attachments and accessories.



This collection of literature represents a complete data pack for the lathe. Please read through the whole list before deciding. Complete Student's Instruction Manual pages with full programming details.



Operator's Hand book - very detailed, full-size A4 edition. This is not the same as, or a substitute for, the Manuals listed as A to C. This version is a full Data Pack covers all models, explains the differences between the generations of the machine and is the full-sized and hard-to-find version.



Parts Manuals as useful Exploded-component Diagrams. Manual available in with English, French or German text. In English or German. Parts Manuals as useful Exploded-component Diagrams including the 4-speed milling head with Exploded Assembly Diagrams.



This machine is identical to the Emcomat 8. Comprehensive Operator's Instruction Manual including the 4-speed milling head with Electrical Diagrams. Includes a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification catalogue detailing the specification and showing all the accessories.



Covers the power cross feed model and includes a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification catalogue detailing the specification and showing all the accessories. Operator's Instruction Manual with electrical diagrams and details of the 4-speed milling head.



Includes Parts Illustrations for the 4-speed milling head. Operator's Instruction Manual including electrical connection diagrams, copies of the sometimes damaged or unclear screwcutting charts.



Also included is a copy of the comprehensive Sales, Technical Specification and Accessories Catalogue. Comprehensive Operator's' Instruction Manual. Includes comprehensive details of the screwcutting arrangements for metric and inch pitches and copies of all the screwcutting charts - imperial, metric and conversion - and a copy of the now rare maker's Sales and Specification catalogue.



This Manual is also available with German text. Parts Manuals as superb quality Cross-Sectional Drawings. In English, German and French. Operator's Instruction 7 Maintenance Manual including several electrical diagrams covering all the different versions.



Includes two copies 26 pages of the maker's detailed Sales, Specification and Accessories Catalogues detailing the specification and showing all the accessories. Includes details of both the later 6-speed and earlier 4-speed versions together with a factory issue page "Electrical System" bulletin for the late FB2.



Includes 2 full editions, early and late. Instruction Manual with Parts Manual as exploded component pictures and wiring diagrams for 1-phase and 3-phase supply. Instruction Manual and Parts Manual as exploded component pictures and wiring diagrams for 1-phase and 3-phase supply.



Instruction Manual and Parts as exploded component pictures. Operating Manual and Hand book. A complete set of 11 large electrical and 4 Pneumatic schematics. Operating Manual and Electrical System.



Several sets of very well written and illustrate publications from their training series. Probably the best training manuals ever written: Includes a Wiring Diagram.



Operating Manual with Mechanical and Electrical Schematics. Electrical Control Manual with fold-out schematics. Parts Manual as detailed Sectional and Annotated Drawings. Spare Parts as Photographic Prints.



Spare Parts as Detailed Sectional Drawings. Operating Instructions including the separate "Mounting Instructions" Manual. Spare Parts as detailed sectional Drawings.



List of Special Accessories and Mounting Details. Spare Parts as Engineering Drawings possibly incomplete. Includes Maintenance Guide for Variable-speed drive unit.



Instruction and Technical Manual. Instruction Book with Illustrated Parts Manual. Operating Instructions with Electrical Schematic. Two Manuals in one: Operating Manual and Self-Teaching Manual.



Maintenance Manual with electrical diagrams. Instruction Manual For Programming No. These were sold using older and newer Model Names: Connection Manual the manual describes all the NC functions required to enable machine tool builders to design their CNC machine tools.



Connection Manual - Hardware. Connection Manual - Function. Operator's Instruction Manual with electrical and pneumatic circuits. General Operator's Hand book that explains the principles of gear shapers and gives a highly detailed explanation of how to use the various models.



The Involute Curve and Involute Gearing. Textbook containing a complete treatise covering the application of the involute curve to gear teeth. Includes design, cutting and checking involute gears, definitions of gear tooth elements, etc.



Textbook containing a complete treatise covering the practical analysis of the comparative tooth form action on internal and external gear teeth. Includes directions for cutting, data on designing internal gears, clutches and splines and methods for calculating gear strength.



Parts as Exploded component Drawings. Parts Manual as detailed Sectional Drawings with useful annotated photographs. Parts Manual as annotated photographs. We are targeting exploratory plays with large acreage positions and multi-million barrel of oil equivalent reserves.



The Company will take farmouts to drill with its own rigs and will also participate alongside other industry partners. Depending on the experience of the operator, Fox Oil Drilling Company will consider non-operating working interests.



However, the Company prefers being the operator and drilling contractor. Fox Oil Drilling's Chairman, Jason Fox, has been involved in oil exploration and production since The Company's team of geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers can evaluate your prospects in a confidential and timely manner.



We welcome you to submit your prospects to us for review. Oil exploration Oil exploration is the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface.



Oil and gas exploration are grouped under the science of petroleum geology. Exploration methods Visible surface features such as oil seeps, natural gas seeps, pockmarks underwater craters caused by escaping gas provides basic evidence of hydrocarbon generation be it shallow or deep in the Earth ; however, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits.



Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey or magnetic survey to detect large scale features of the sub-surface geology.



Features of interest known as leads are subjected to more detailed seismic surveys which works on the principle of the time it takes for reflected sound waves to travel through matter rock of varying densities and using the process of depth conversion to create a profile of the substructure.



Finally, when a prospect has been identified evaluated and passes the oil companies selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled to conclusively determine the presence or absence of oil or gas.



Oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation. Offshore and remote area exploration is generally only undertaken by very large corporations or national governments, typical Shallow shelf oil wells e.



Elements of a Petroleum Prospect A petroleum prospect is a potential trap which geologists believe may contain petroleum. There are five elements which all have to be present for a prospect to contain hydrocarbons.



If any of them fail, then we get a dry hole. A source rock - When organic-rich rock such as oil shale or coal is subjected to high pressure and temperature over an extended period of time, hydrocarbons form.



Migration - The Hydrocarbons are expelled from source rock by three density-related mechanisms: Most hydrocarbons migrate to the surface as oil seeps, but some will get trapped.



Trap - The hydrocarbons are buoyant and have to be trapped within a structural e. Seal or cap Rock - The hydrocarbon trap has to be covered by an impermeable rock known as a seal or cap-rock in order to prevent hydrocarbons escaping to the surface.



Reservoir - The hydrocarbons are contained in a reservoir rock. This is a porous sandstone or limestone. The oil collects in the pores within the rock. The reservoir must also be permeable so that the hydrocarbons will flow to surface during production.



Terms used in petroleum evaluation Lead - a feature which may contain hydrocarbons Prospect - a Lead which has been fully evaluated and is ready to drill Chance of Success - An estimate of the chance of all the elements see above within a prospect working, described as a probability.



Hydrocarbon in Place - amount of hydrocarbon likely to be contained in the prospect. The FVF converts volumes at reservoir conditions high pressure and high temperature to storage and sale conditions Recoverable hydrocarbons - amount of hydrocarbon likely to be recovered during production.



Licensing Petroleum resources are typically owned by the government of the host country. The government issues licences to explore, develop and produce its oil and gas resources, which are typically administered by the oil ministry.



There are several different types of licence. Typically oil companies operate in joint ventures to spread the risk, one of the companies in the partnership is designated the operator who actually supervises the work.



Tax and Royalty - Companies would pay a royalty on any oil produced, together with a profits tax which can have expenditure offset against it. In some cases there are also various bonuses and ground rents licence fees payable to the government - for example a signature bonus payable at the start of the licence.



Licences are awarded in competitive bid rounds on the basis of either the size of the work programme number of wells, seismic etc or size of the signature bonus. There are also various bonuses to be paid.



Development expenditure is offset against production revenue. Service contract - This is when an oil company acts as a contractor for the host government, being paid to produce the hydrocarbons.



Reserves and resources Resources are hydrocarbons which may or may not be produced in the future. A resource number may be assigned to an undrilled prospect or an unappraised discovery.



Appraisal by drilling additional delineation wells or acquiring extra seismic data will confirm the size of the field and lead to project sanction. A this point the relevant government body gives the oil company a production licence which enables the field to be developed.



This is also the point at which oil reserves can be formally booked. Definition of oil reserves Oil reserves are a primarily a measure of geological risk - of the probability of oil existing and being producible under current economic conditions using current technology.



The three categories of reserves generally used are proven, probable, and possible reserves. Proven reserves - defined as oil and gas "Reasonably Certain" to be producable using current technology at current prices, with current commercial terms and government consent - also known in the industry as 1P.



Some Industry specialists refer to this as P90 - i. The Reserves of any company listed on the New York Stock Exchange - which in practice means virtually every commercial company in the world - have to be stated to the U.



Securities and Exchange Commission. In many cases these reported reserves are audited by external geologists, although this is not a legal requirement. Securities and Exchange Commission rejects the probability concept and prohibits companies from mentioning probable and possible reserves in their filings.



Thus, official estimates of proven reserves will always be understated compared to what oil companies think actually exists. For practical puposes companies will use proven plus probable estimate 2P, and for long term planning they will be looking primarily at possible reserves.



Petroleum Petroleum from Greek petra — rock and elaion — oil or Latin oleum — oil or crude oil is a black, dark brown or greenish liquid found in porous rock formations in the earth.



The American Petroleum Institute, in its Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards MPMS, defines it as "a substance, generally liquid, occurring naturally in the earth and composed mainly of mixtures of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen with or without other nonmetallic elements such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.



It consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly alkanes, but may vary greatly in appearance and composition. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and petrol gasoline, both important "primary energy" sources IEA Key World Energy Statistics.



Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. Known reserves of petroleum are estimated at around gigabarrels, that is, one thousand billion, and consumption is currently around 84 million barrels per day, or 31 gigabarrels per year.



Since petroleum is a non-renewable resource, many people are worried about peak oil and eventual depletion in the near future. Due to its continual demand and consequent value, oil has been dubbed black gold.



The combining form of the word petroleum is petro-, as in petrodiesel petroleum diesel. Formation Biogenic theory Most geologists view crude oil, like coal and natural gas, as the product of compression and heating of ancient organic materials over geological time.



According to this theory, oil is formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric zooplankton and algae which have been settled to the sea bottom in large quantities under anoxic conditions. Terrestrial plants tend to form coal, and very few dinosaurs have been converted into oil.



Over geological time this organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried under heavy layers of sediment. The resulting high levels of heat and pressure cause the remains to metamorphose, first into a waxy material known as kerogen which is found in various oil shales around the world, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis.



Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water, these sometimes migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until they become trapped beneath impermeable rocks, within porous rocks called reservoirs.



Concentration of hydrocarbons in a trap forms an oil field, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping. Geologists often refer to an "oil window" which is the temperature range that oil forms in—below the minimum temperature oil remains trapped in the form of kerogen, and above the maximum temperature the oil is converted to natural gas through the process of thermal cracking.



Though this happens at different depths in different locations around the world, a 'typical' depth for the oil window might be 4—6 km. Note that even if oil is formed at extreme depths, it may be trapped at much shallower depths, even if it is not formed there.



In the case of the Athabasca Oil Sands, it is found right at the surface. Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: If an oil well were to run dry and be capped, it would likely fill back to its original supply eventually.



There is considerable question about how long this would take. Some formations appear to have a regeneration time of decades. The vast majority of oil that has been produced by the earth has long ago escaped to the surface and been biodegraded by oil-eating bacteria.



What oil companies are looking for is the small fraction that has been trapped by this rare combination of circumstances. Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping, but contain so much migrating oil that, although most of it has escaped, vast amounts are still present - more than can be found in conventional oil reservoirs.



On the other hand, oil shales are source rocks that have never been buried deep enough to convert their trapped kerogen into oil. The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where kerogen is broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions.



The first set was originally patented in under British Crown Patent No. Abiogenic theory The idea of abiogenic petroleum origin was championed in the Western world by astronomer Thomas Gold based on thoughts from Russia, mainly on studies of Nikolai Kudryavtsev.



The idea proposes that hydrocarbons of purely geological origin exist in the planet. Hydrocarbons are less dense than aqueous pore fluids, and are proposed to migrate upward through deep fracture networks.



Thermophilic, rock-dwelling microbial life-forms are proposed to be in part responsible for the biomarkers found in petroleum. However, this theory is a minority opinion, especially amongst geologists and no oil companies are currently known to explore for oil based on this theory.



Extraction Locating an oil field is the first obstacle to be overcome. Today, geologists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs.



The "classic" method includes making underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures under the ground [1]. However the "passive" methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also known [2].



Other instruments such as gravimeters and magnetometers are also sometimes used in the search for petroleum. Generally, the first stage in the extraction of crude oil is to drill a well into the underground reservoir.



When an oil bearing structure has been tapped, the wellsite geologist known on the rig as the "mudlogger" will note its presence. Historically, in the USA, some oil fields existed where the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been depleted, except for certain remote locations in Alaska.



Often many wells called multilateral wells are drilled into the same reservoir, to ensure that the extraction rate will be economically viable. Also, some wells secondary wells may be used to pump water, steam, acids or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure, and so maintain an economic extraction rate.



If the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient, then the oil will be forced to the surface under this pressure. Gaseous fuels, natural gas or water are usually present, which also supply needed underground pressure.



In this situation it is sufficient to place a complex arrangement of valves the Christmas tree on the well head to connect the well to a pipeline network for storage and processing.



This is called primary oil recovery. The amount of oil that is recoverable is determined by a number of factors including the permeability of the rocks, the strength of natural drives the gas present, pressure from adjacent water or gravity, and the viscosity of the oil.



When the reservoir rocks are "tight" such as shale, oil generally cannot flow through but when they are permeable such as in sandstone, oil flows freely. The flow of oil is often helped by natural pressures surrounding the reservoir rocks including natural gas that may be dissolved in the oil, natural gas present above the oil, water below the oil and the strength of gravity.



Oils tend to span a large range of viscosity from liquids as light as gasoline to heavy as tar. The lightest forms tend to result in higher production rates.



Over the lifetime of the well the pressure will fall, and at some point there will be insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface. If economical, and it often is, the remaining oil in the well is extracted using secondary oil recovery methods see: Secondary oil recovery uses various techniques to aid in recovering oil from depleted or low-pressure reservoirs.



Sometimes pumps, such as beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps ESPs, are used to bring the oil to the surface. Other secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir's pressure by water injection, natural gas reinjection and gas lift, which injects air, carbon dioxide or some other gas into the reservoir.



Tertiary oil recovery reduces the oil's viscosity to increase oil production. Tertiary recovery is started when secondary oil recovery techniques are no longer enough to sustain production, but only when the oil can still be extracted profitably.



This depends on the cost of the extraction method and the current price of crude oil. When prices are high, previously unprofitable wells are brought back into production and when they are low, production is curtailed.



Thermally enhanced oil recovery methods TEOR are tertiary recovery techniques that heat the oil and make it easier to extract. Steam injection is the most common form of TEOR, and is often done with a cogeneration plant.



In this type of cogeneration plant, a gas turbine is used to generate electricity and the waste heat is used to produce steam, which is then injected into the reservoir. In-situ burning is another form of TEOR, but instead of steam, some of the oil is burned to heat the surrounding oil.



Occasionally, detergents are also used to decrease oil viscosity. History Petroleum, in some form or other, is not a substance new in the world's history. More than four thousand years ago, according to Herodotus and confirmed by Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was employed in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon.



Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society.



The first oil wells were drilled in China in the 4th century or earlier. They had depths of up to meters and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt.



By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. In the 8th century, the streets of the newly constructed Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from easily accessible petroleum from natural fields in the region.



In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce naphtha. These fields were described by the geographer Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.



Timeline of Islamic science and technology. The modern history of petroleum began in, with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Atlantic Canada's Abraham Pineo Gesner.



These discoveries rapidly spread around the world, and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oil fields at Baku in The battle of Stalingrad was fought over Baku now the capital of the Azerbaijan Republic.



Oil field in California, The first modern oil well was drilled in by Russian engineer F. Semyonov, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku. The American petroleum industry began with Edwin Drake's discovery of oil in, near Titusville, Pennsylvania; like the Chinese, Drake had been boring for salt.



The industry grew slowly in the s, driven by the demand for kerosene and oil lamps. It became a major national concern in the early part of the 20th century; the introduction of the internal combustion engine provided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day.



Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly exhausted, leading to "oil booms" in Texas, Oklahoma, and California. By, significant oil fields had been discovered in Canada specifically, in the province of Alberta, the Dutch East Indies, in Sumatra, Persia, in Masjed Soleiman, Peru, Venezuela, and Mexico, and were being developed at an industrial level.



Even until the mids, coal was still the world's foremost fuel, but oil quickly took over. Following the energy crisis and the energy crisis, there was significant media coverage of oil supply levels.



This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that will eventually run out, at least as an economically viable energy source. At the time, the most common and popular predictions were always quite dire, and when they did not come true, many dismissed all such discussion.



The future of petroleum as a fuel remains somewhat controversial. USA Today news reports that there are 40 years of petroleum left in the ground. Some would argue that because the total amount of petroleum is finite, the dire predictions of the s have merely been postponed.



Others argue that technology will continue to allow for the production of cheap hydrocarbons and that the earth has vast sources of unconventional petroleum reserves in the form of tar sands, bitumen fields and oil shale that will allow for petroleum use to continue in the future, with both the Canadian tar sands and United States shale oil deposits representing potential reserves matching existing liquid petroleum deposits worldwide.



Petroleum's worth as a portable, dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the world's most important commodities.



Means of producing oil As oil prices continue to escalate, other alternatives to producing oil have been gaining importance. The best known such methods involve extracting oil from sources such as oil shale or tar sands.



These resources are known to exist in large quantities; however, extracting the oil at low cost without negatively impacting the environment remains a challenge. It is also possible to transform natural gas or coal into oil or, more precisely, the various hydrocarbons found in oil.



The best-known such method is the Fischer-Tropsch process. It was a concept pioneered in Nazi Germany when imports of petroleum were restricted due to war and Germany found a method to extract oil from coal.



However, the process was used only as a last resort as naturally occurring oil was much cheaper. As crude oil prices increase, the cost of coal to oil conversion becomes comparatively cheaper.



The method involves converting high ash coal into synthetic oil in a multistage process. Ideally, a ton of coal produces nearly liters 1. Currently, two companies have commercialised their Fischer-Tropsch technology.



Shell in Bintulu, Malaysia, uses natural gas as a feedstock, and produces primarily low-sulfur diesel fuels. Sasol in South Africa uses coal as a feedstock, and produces a variety of synthetic petroleum products.



The process is today used in South Africa to produce most of the country's diesel fuel from coal by the company Sasol. The process was used in South Africa to meet its energy needs during its isolation under Apartheid.



This process has received renewed attention in the quest to produce low sulfur diesel fuel in order to minimize the environmental impact from the use of diesel engines.



An alternative method is the Karrick process, which converts coal into crude oil, pioneered in the s in the United States. More recently explored is thermal depolymerization TDP.



In theory, TDP can convert any organic waste into petroleum. Black Gold Black gold, in most of the world, refers to Petroleum. The name is derived from the black color of crude oil combined with its status as a highly valuable resource, serving in the industrial age, in many ways, the same role that gold did in the pre-industrial era.



In the Appalachian Mountains of the United States, a major coal-producing region, the term refers to coal. In Taiwan, it means iron, petroleum, and coal. The term was used in the theme song of the TV show The Beverly Hillbillies, along with the term "Texas Tea", another synonym for crude oil.



Classification The oil industry classifies "crude" by the location of its origin e. Each crude oil has unique molecular characteristics which are understood by the use of crude oil assay analysis in petroleum laboratories.



The world reference barrels are: The oil is landed at Sullom Voe terminal in the Shetlands. Oil production from Europe, Africa and Middle Eastern oil flowing West tends to be priced off the price of this oil, which forms a benchmark.



Dubai, used as benchmark for Middle East oil flowing to the Asia-Pacific region. This makes the measure important for market analysts. The price of a barrel which is 42 gallons of oil is highly dependent on both its grade which is determined by factors such as its specific gravity or API and its sulphur content and location.



The vast majority of oil will not be traded on an exchange but on an over-the-counter basis, typically with reference to a marker crude oil grade that is typically quoted via pricing agencies such as Argus Media Ltd and Platts.



These estimates of costs ignore the cost of finding and developing oil reserves. Furthermore the important cost as far as price is concerned, is not the price of the cheapest barrel but the cost of producing the marginal barrel.



By limiting production OPEC has caused more expensive areas of production such as the North Sea to be developed before the Middle East has been exhausted.



OPEC's power is also often overstated. Investing in spare capacity is expensive and the low oil price environment in the late 90s led to cutbacks in investment. This has meant during the oil price rally seen between, OPEC's spare capacity has not been sufficient to stabilise prices.



Oil demand is highly dependent on global macroeconomic conditions, so this is also an important determinant of price. Some economists claim that high oil prices have a large negative impact on the global growth.



This means that the relationship between the oil price and global growth is not particularly stable although a high oil price is often thought of as being a late cycle phenomenon. Well drilled after the discovery of oil or gas to establish the limits of the reservoir, the productivity of wells in it and the properties of the oil or gas.



See also development well Block: High pressure valve fitted to the top of the casing to prevent blow-outs Compressor: An engine used to increase the pressure of natural gas so that it will flow more quickly through a pipeline Condensate: Removal of production equipment and facilities from depleted oil fields Development well: A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive Directional Drilling: Also known as deviated drilling; technique used in production drilling whereby wells are drilled at an angle from a central point so that a number of development wells can be drilled from a single drilling facility Downhole: A term used to describe tools, equipment, and instruments used in the wellbore, or conditions or techniques applying to the wellbore Downstream: Refining of crude oil and the marketing and distribution of oil products that occur after refining, as opposed to upstream Downtime: The time during which offshore operations cannot be continued owing to adverse weather conditions, mechanical or other factors Drill-bit: The cutting head attached to the drill-pipe Drilling Muds or Fluid: Fluid, containing barytes, which is pumped through the drill-string to the bottom of the well, whence it rises to the surface through the space between drill-string and bore-hole wall.



It acts as a lubricant and is used to control flow Dry hole: The "upstream" sector of the oil and gas industry EOR: Enhanced Oil Recovery Equity: Share or interest in an oil or gas licence or field Exploratory well: Where a company to joins a joint venture in return for paying disproportionately for future joint venture operations Field: An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same individual geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition.



The field name refers to the surface area, although it may refer to both the surface and the underground productive formations Floater: An offshore drilling platform without a fixed base, usually held in position by anchor chains FPSO: Floating Production Storage and Offloading Integrated: When applied to an oil company, it indicates a firm that operates in both the upstream and downstream sectors from exploration through to refining and marketing Jacket: Supporting structure for an offshore platform Jack-up: Mobile offshore drilling platform with retractable legs, on which the platform rests on the seabed when operational Joint venture: Oil companies generally participate in oil and gas projects through their equity share in a joint venture, usually unincorporated.



The relationship between the companies is governed by a joint venture agreement Lease: A legal document conveying the right to drill for oil and gas, or the tract of land on which a lease has been obtained where the producing wells and production equipment may be located Licence: An exploration licence permits only geological and geophysical surveying and the drilling of shallow wells; a production licence confers exclusive rights on the licensee to search and bore for and get petroleum Log: The results of a survey which gathers information about the subsurface formations.



Logs typically consist of several curves on a long grid that describe properties within the wellbore or surrounding formations that can be interpreted to provide information about the location of oil, gas, and water.



Also called well logs mmcf: A term sometimes used to refer to those industry activities that fall between exploration and production upstream and refining and marketing downstream.



The term is most often applied to pipeline transportation of crude oil and natural gas OPEC: Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries founded in A depleted well or dry hole that has been typically filled with cement with all surface equipment removed Plateau Level: The level of peak production reached by an oil or gas field Platform: A fixed structure resting on the seabed or piled into it from which development wells are drilled, using directional drilling, to exploit an oil or gas field.



To date, these platforms are of two kinds, although several novel designs are in existence. Gravity structures, either concrete or hybrid with concrete base and steel legs and superstructure, which rest on the seabed by virtue of their own weight, or steel, which are piled into the seabed Reservoir: A subsurface, porous, permeable rock formation in which oil and gas are found Seismic: Data that is acquired by reflecting sound from underground strata and is processed to yield a picture of the sub-surface geology of an area Semi-submersible: Mobile offshore drilling platform with floats or pontoons submerged to give stability while operating, kept in position by anchors or dynamic positioning Spud, to: To commence drilling operations Topsides: The top part of a platform positioned on the jacket UKCS: United Kingdom Continental Shelf Upstream: Upstream covers the exploration, production and transport prior to refining Wellhead: The equipment at the surface of a well used to control the pressure and flow of fluids; the point at which the hydrocarbons and water exit the ground or sea bed Wildcat: Unless otherwise indicated, natural gas volumes are stated at the legal pressure base of the state or area in which the reserves are located and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and in most instances are rounded to the nearest major multiple.



BOEs are determined using the ratio of six Mcf of natural gas to one Bbl of oil. Prices include consideration of changes in existing prices provided only by contractual arrangements, but not on escalations based upon future conditions.



Reservoirs are considered proved if economic producibility is supported by either actual production or conclusive formation test. The area of a reservoir considered proved includes: In the absence of information on fluid contacts, the lowest known structural occurrence of hydrocarbons controls the lower proved limit of the reservoir.



Estimates of proved reserves do not include the following: Reserves on undrilled acreage are usually limited to those drilling units offsetting productive units that are reasonably certain of production when drilled.



Proved reserves for other undrilled units can be claimed only where it can be demonstrated with certainty that there is continuity of production from the existing productive formation.



Under no circumstances are estimates for proved undeveloped reserves generally attributed to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual tests in the area and in the same reservoir.



Chemicals or energy is injected as required for displacement and for the control of flow rate and flow pattern in the reservoir, and a fluid drive is provided to force the oil toward a production well.



The share of production to which a working interest owner is entitled will always be smaller than the share of costs that the working interest owner is required to bear, with the balance of the production accruing to the owners of royalties.



Employment Opportunities Fox Oil Drilling Company is the right choice for individuals with exceptional ethics, integrity and long-term vision. We care for our employees by promoting safety as a top company initiative.



Other benefits include structured developmental career paths, competitive benefits and being part of a diverse, worldwide workforce. Fox Oil Drilling Company is positioned for long-term growth.



If you are looking for a career that offers challenging work and opportunities around the world, Fox Oil Drilling is the right choice. We are continuously seeking to provide career opportunities to experienced oil and gas personnel.



Fox Oil Drilling Company is an equal opportunity employer and practices careful, objective hiring methods. In addition, we have a longstanding practice of promoting from within, which encourages people to develop and grow inside the organization.



Drilling Superintendent The employee that supervises the work activity of the entire drilling department personnel to include carrying out objectives established by management. Essential functions include planning, scheduling, problem solving, conducting inspections and operational meetings, interacting with other rig department heads, and communicating directions to the Toolpusher.



Toolpusher The employee in complete charge of the rig and all employees related to the rig. The Toolpusher is responsible for every aspect of a rig's functions and results, including hiring and firing.



Driller The employee directly in charge of a drilling rig and crew. The Driller's main duty is operation of the drilling equipment. The Driller is also responsible for the downhole tools and pipe measurements.



Derrickman The crew member who handles the upper end of the drill stem as it is being hoisted out of or lowered into the hole. Floorman A drilling crew member whose work station is on the drilling floor.



Oilfield Mechanic Mechanics with experience in repairing and maintaining various oil and gas industry heavy equipment. Equipment Operator Experienced truck drivers and dozer operators to move drilling equipment to well sites.



The American Petroleum Institute is the primary trade association representing the oil and natural gas industry in the United States. An indicator developed by the American Petroleum Institute API to identify areas such as counties and other subdivision areas identified within state boundaries.



An acreage sub-division measuring approximately 10 x 20 kms, forming part of a quadrant. See blow-out preventers Borehole: Pipe cemented in the well to seal off formation fluids or keep the hole from caving in.



Liquid petroleum as it comes out of the ground as distinguished from refined oils manufactured out of it. Rock chips cut from the formation by the drill bit, and brought to the surface with the mud.



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Also applies to the original Mk. The early manuals were rather thin so included is a copy of the very comprehensive manual for the Mk. This large page triple-edition Manual also covers: Not a manual but a detailed "Technical" Sales and Specification and Specification Catalogue that contains useful operating data, charts and details of the complete accessory range and how to mount it - includes two additional separate Sales and Specification and Specification sheets.



Slim but useful guide to using Diesinking and Engraving Machines with examples of how to mount and employ the various accessories: This is a complete data pack for the machine and includes all available printed data.



This consists early and late manuals for the simpler SO model together with the full manual for the more complex and versatile SOE. Also included is copy of the maker's Sales and Accessories Catalogue and all the relevant extracts from the Deckel Technical Bulletins.



Very comprehensive instructions including cutter profiles, tool angles, cutting speeds, how to grind back rack angles, pointed cutters, tapered cutters, twist-drill grinding attachment, single lip cutters, grinding straight-toothed cylindrical or tapered two-lip or three-tooth cutters with concentric or off-centre radii.



This edition Includes both Mk. Includes two blue-print sized sectional drawings together with speed, feed, screwcutting and electrical charts. Includes Hydraulic and Electrical Schematics.



Programming and Operations Manual. English, French, German and Italian Text. English or German Text. Operator's Instruction Manual - includes an Electrical Schematic: Instruction Manual for the 14", 16", 20", and 25" E and F lathes.



Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual with useful sectional drawings, annotated photographs of various assemblies and a Wiring Diagram. Two editions of the manuals are included, one with Exploded Component Parts Drawings and the other with sectional and cut-away drawings.



Servo Controller Series D. Instruction Book, Maintenance Manual with Electrical Schematics and copies of the often worn screwcutting and feeds charts. Please e-mail your requirements: French and German Text no English Edition was published.



Operator's Instruction Manual and Maintenance Manual. Operating Instructions with Parts as Exploded Drawings. Includes a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification catalogue.



Includes a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification Catalogue. Includes a copy of the Maker's Sales and Specification Catalog. Slim but very useful publication. Two editions included in English and German.



Includes a copy of the English Sales Catalogue. Operator's Instructions and Spare Parts Lists. Most of the Company's radial-arm drills appear to have been covered in a Publication with the title: Spare Parts as individual photographs.



The head can be recognised by its circular speed-selector dial on the front face, two levers immediately above set in a rectangular surround, a fine-feed handwheel set below and to the right of the spindle nose, usually a chin-supported counterweight at the back and the motor mounted vertically towards the back of the head and the top of the spindle end covered by a slightly tapered cover with a rounded top.



Includes an electrical schematic and a copy of the maker's Technical Sales and Specification and Specification Catalogue. Two editions of the manual are included, early and late, for machines coded among others as and Installation, Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual.



Installation, Maintenance and Operating Manual. Assembly and Operating Instructions. Includes an electrical schematic. A complete guide to the use of Artos wire strippers.



Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual including a large general-arrangement and Foundation drawing. Instruction Book with useful Sectional Drawings.



Also includes a dedicated sales catalogue with useful annotated pictures and foundation drawings. A complete data pack consisting of: Includes useful early and late Sales and Specification and Specification Catalogues.



Large Scale Foundation Plan. A complete Data Pack built up from: Also included is a comprehensive and useful Technical Sales and Specification and Specification Catalogue with descriptions of the mechanisms, some Sectional Drawings and annotated control charts.



Includes two descriptive and well-illustrated catalogues with annotated control pictures - one early, the other late. English or German text. Operator's Instruction Manual and Maintenance Guide.



Operator's Instruction Manual with extra pages on chuck operation and care, a Spare Parts Manual as exploded Component Drawings and the essential screwcutting data and charts for inch and metric pitches strangely missing from the original Manual.



A copy of the first-ever sales pages, a later rare dedicated 6-inch catalog with every accessory illustrated and a copy of the sales sheet for the "Craftsman" cloned version. Whilst the ordinary manual has just 8 pages this is a complete data pack consisting of 61 pages.



Whilst the ordinary manual has just 12 pages this is a collection of 44 pages. Includes a copy of a rare, early Catalogue. This lathe may be marked with the following model numbers: It was also sold as the "Craftsman" and "Metalcraft" models.



Click here for pictures whilst the lathe remained basically the same for many years, with identical major components, various specifications were available with Model Numbers that included, over the years: A complete data pack of information that covers all models, from the first to last, is available.



All the accessories are shown - enabling easy identification of any items that might be found on the second-hand market. A large and heavy publication. Comprehensive page Special Edition listing all the setting for Standard, metric and odd threads and feeds.



A complete data pack of information. Separate Parts Manual as exploded component diagrams and a basic threading chart. Complete Installation and Operator's Instruction Manual with extensive charts giving threads and feed rates for every possible combination of gears and including threads not listed on the lathe.



Includes the first-edition, beautifully illustrated Sales and Specification and Specification and Accessories Catalogue No. Includes 3 different very detailed and interesting Sales and Specification and Specification and Accessories Catalogues showing all models with accurate descriptions of their construction, parts, controls and the extensive accessory range.



This represents the totality of written and illustrated information about these machines. All pages from the catalogs with details of Accessories and Attachments: A package of data: A3 and A Spraying Units.



Parts as sectional and Exploded component drawings. Spray Guns and Nozzles - Maintenance Instructions. Operator's Instruction Manual with Electrical Schematics. Includes a circuit diagram.



Detailed Instruction Manual with electrical schematics. Includes operating and maintenance instructions for the variable delivery hydraulic pump, Supplementary Instructions for the hydraulic system and instructions for the lever-operated wedges.



Manuals may be obtainable. Operation Manual with sectional drawings through the main components and an electrical schematic. Manual and Parts Manual as Exploded-component Drawings.



Includes a copy of the maker's Technical Specification and Sales catalogue. Includes and Electrical Schematic. Operating Instructions and Parts Diagrams. Comprehensive and Detailed Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual that is both machine-specific and also covers the general principles of generating gears with hobs.



Parts Manual as Sectional Drawings. Repair Parts Manual as sectional drawings. Complete and Detailed coverage of how to use and maintain hobs. Manual, Operator's Instruction and Maintenance. Parts manual as Exploded Component Photographic plates.



Installation and Instruction Manual. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Booklet. Additional sheets cover the Mk. Essential differences between the later and Mk.



Control Circuits Chart, "Z" Axis Electronic Gearbox connection diagram, and pneumatic and Hydraulic systems and automatic oiling systems diagrams. Instruction Manual for the "Sinumerik" 5 Control System.



A comprehensive page User's Instruction Manual designed to teach the operator every detail of the construction and operation of these remarkable machines.



Includes a very interesting Bechler Company history, background notes and data on materials, processes, cam design, types of belt to use and numerous hints and tips for efficient and accurate production.



The general operating instructions and Cam-design data can be applied to any type of Swiss Automatic. Non-machine Specific Comprehensive Operating Tables including feed rates, cutting angles, threading charts, cam templates, spindle speeds, etc.



Detailed Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual. Headstock Spindle Brake Instruction Manual. English and French language editions available. Operating Instructions, Speed tables and Installation Plans.



Instructions for Calculating Cams and Production Times. Detailed Instructions for Setting. Detailed Instruction Manual with Electrical schematics. Detailed Instruction Manual for both the single and twin-belt types.



Detailed Operating Instruction Manual for both the single and twin-belt types. Cross drilling milling Attachment. Includes a copy of the maker's Technical Sales Specification Catalogue.



Universal Combined 3-spindle centring, Drilling and Threading Attachment: Detailed Manual for Setting up with Sectional Drawings. Operating Tables giving a complete pictures of cam dimensions spindle speeds.



Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual with a hydraulic schematic. Operator's Instruction and Servicing Manual with 6 large drawings showing: Operating and Servicing Instructions and Spare Parts as Exploded Component Drawings together with a Separate publication "Installation and Servicing of Bentley Epic Presses" and, for the M-Type, a cross sectional drawing through the crank, drawing of the arrangement of the single-stroke mechanism together with Hydraulic, Electrical, Tooling, General and Lubrication layouts.



Shows giant Hydro-electric units, propellers, Turbine casings and other large jobs being machined. Single-sheet Operating Instructions with blade-setting and blade regrinding advice.



Operating and Service Instructions with a number of useful sectional drawings. English, French and German text. Operator's hand book with Spares as Sectional and Exploded Component Drawings and a copy of the 4-page Sales catalogue.



Includes a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification and Specification Catalogue. Electrical Diagrams, Hydraulic diagram, a large foundation plan for all sizes.



Also has reproductions of the often damaged or missing screwcutting charts, a copy of the Tolerance Chart and the maker's Technical Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



Operator's Instruction Manual with 4 large electrical, air and mechanical schematics. Comprehensive Operator's Instruction Manual and detailed Sectional-drawings Parts Manual and dismantling instructions.



Individual shown as Photographs. Slender but useful volume. The most comprehensive book known on the subject - covers every aspect in great detail. Unlike the South Bend book "How to Run a Lathe" this page edition concentrates in detail on the 9-inch lathe, not the whole range, and thus contains much more information about how to operate it as well as many screwcutting charts, lists of changewheels set-ups as machines left the factory, metric conversions and other valuable data.



A few mechanical details are different but the operating procedures are identical. Welding - method of operation; Welding various material; hints on cutting; care in hand ling cylinders, etc.



Instruction and Maintenance Manual with Parts Manual. Instruction and Maintenance Manual with Electrical Schematic. Operator's Instruction Manual and Parts Manual. Instructions and Parts Manual with wiring diagrams.



Includes a copy of the Technical Sales and Specification and Specification catalogue. General Guide to their use, Model Types and Capabilities. Operator's Instruction Manual with Sectional Drawings.



Shows the complete range of accessories, vertical heads, rotary tables, angular tables, cutting and chucking tools, arbors, collets, boring bars, clamping tools and additional equipment, The section on vertical heads and rotary tables shows fittings, flanges, dimensions, swivels, etc.



Operating Manual and Maintenance Manual. The lathe manual and catalogue is in German but the parts manual, and the early catalogues in English. This is the only known technical literature for these lathes but is useful for both early and late types as shown here http: Detailed Instruction and Maintenance Manual with large fold-out electrical, cam and chart schematics.



Detailed Operating Instructions with a number of useful Sectional Drawings. Includes instructions for the ZF Electromagnetic Clutches with sectional drawings. Includes a copy of the maker's detailed Sales and Technical Specification Catalogue.



Includes a very detailed page Technical Specification Catalogue with useful explanations about the lathe's control systems. Operating Instructions with screwcutting charts, useful sectional drawings through the headstock and a very useful and detailed Technical Sales and Accessories Catalogue with control and operation explanations.



Unfortunately there appear to have been no "Manuals" produced by the company for their range of older flat-belt drive Precision plain-turning and screwcutting lathes, nor for the watchmakers' lathes.



However, a large selection of interesting and well-produced technical advertising literature is available on the Catalogues Pages Boley F1 Super-precision Watchmakers' Lathe. Not a manual but a very detailed and informative Sales Catalogue that explains clearly how to use the lathe for the specialised work of which it was capable.



Not a Manual but a detailed 44 page catalogue that shows the complete range of clutches in cross section together with tables of essential data. Detailed Specification and Operation Literature that shows, by illustrated examples, how to set up and use these machines.



Parts as Exploded Component Drawings. English and German Language Edition. Boxford Lathe Manual as a comprehensive Data Pack. A complete, high-quality page publication for all models of belt-drive Boxford lathe from earliest to last.



Contains the best of the larger and far-better early manuals with clearer pictures and drawings together with additional sections and charts not included in the original - including, for example, how to generate pitches not shown on the screwcutting gearbox, which pitches the lever positions produce when converting from Imperial to metric and ice versa, a full list of standard and extra changewheels and how they were set up on leaving the factory and data on metric to inch and inch to metric screwcutting conversions.



Includes an additional page illustrated spares section for all years including Models: A comprehensive page collection of the best Sales and Accessories Catalogues is also included that shows the complete range of models produced together with all the many accessories.



No manual was ever issued but we can supply: Instruction and Maintenance Manual and Exploded components Parts Manual with an electrical schematic. Includes copies of several detailed advertising catalogues that give the full specification of the various models and show all the accessories.



Operating and Maintenance Manual with Electrical Schematic slender but useful and a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification and Specification and Accessories Literature.



A data pack consisting of: Model Shaper 2-pages. Model S - and two price lists. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance manual with many useful sectional drawings. Includes Electrical and Hydraulic Schematics.



Includes a copy of the often worn screwcutting and spindle speed data and the maker's detailed and interesting Sales and Specification Catalogue. Instructions and Parts Manual as Sectional Drawings.



In English, Italian and German. A previous user wrote an extended translated English section with additional Drawings - this is included. Included is an American Operation and Maintenance Manual for one of the later machines which has the Parts Section as useful sectional drawings.



A complete Data Pack with all known literature consisting of three elements: Detailed Operator's Instruction Manuals. Comprehensive Maintenance Manual with Parts as large fold-out Drawings.



Operating and Programming Manual. Includes Test and Set Up Procedures notes devised by a factory service engineer. Operating Manual and Programming Guide. Maintenance Manual with Electrical Schematics.



Maintenance Manual with Wiring Diagrams. Includes Parameters for Initial power up. Comprehensive page Maintenance and Operator's Instruction Manual and with all parts shown as detailed Sectional Drawings.



Operator's Instruction Manual with Detailed Instructions. There were early and lathe manuals for these machines and both are included in this package.



Also includes additional Technical Bulletins produced over the years that detail a number of important aspects of drill-sharpening work. This represents a complete data set for the machine. Includes copies of the maker's Technical Sales and Specification Catalogues and Accessories Folders that explain the reasons behind the machine's design and what it is capable of.



This literature represents a complete data pack for the lathe. Because the lathes changed slowly in design the publication shows the machines as they were from about to An additional page advertising section is at the back of the book that shows the complete range of Britannia products for both the amateur and professional markets.



A wonderful publication - and a rare find. Covers every aspect of lathe work including a useful section on ornamental turning, ornamental attachments and spinning.



Catalogue" showing the full range of lathes, millers, shapers, pillar and radial-arm drills, horizontal borers, planers, parting-off machines, punching and shearing machines, screwing machines, plate flanging machines, chucks, compound slides, cutting tools, vices, saws, band saws and engineers tools.



All-models General Operation and Maintenance Manual. General Instruction and Operator's Instruction Manual. Simple Maintenance Manual combined with a catalogue. Includes clutch adjustment instructions.



Service Manual with Sectional Drawings, an Electrical Schematic and copies of the screwcutting, power feeds and spindle-speed charts. Includes two full-size drawings of Apron and Saddle.



Three Instruction and Maintenance Manuals and Illustrated Parts Manual with detailed Cross Sectional Drawings and Exploded Illustrations that cover all variants of these early Clausing lathes from the Model of to the renamed machine Series of - and to the last versions made in A complete guide to the principles and practicalities of Press Brake tool setting and use.



Operator's Instruction, Maintenance and Installation Manual. Includes wiring diagram for the 60 and 90 ton models. Installation and Maintenance of the older cast-iron body type motors.



Maintenance and Spares Sheets with useful assembly diagrams. Operation of prime pumps. Operating, Maintenance and Parts Manual. Large page volume published by the company with very detailed photographs showing the machines in use and the application of special fittings.



Not a Manual, and not a Sales and Specification folder - but very interesting if you have one of the following: Repair Parts as clear Exploded-component Drawings that show the construction of the whole machine.



A multi-purpose machine capable of cylindrical, surface and tool and cutter grinding operations. Two editions, one early the other late, of the Comprehensive Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual giving complete coverage of the machine.



Parts Manual as Exploded component Drawings. Illustrated Repair Parts Manual. Repair Parts as Exploded Component Drawings. Construction and Use Manual - a wonderful page book written for the operator showing every aspect of how the machines work and to set up and operate these incredibly reliable and robust machines.



Increased in size from A5 to a more easily-read A4 and, in addition, many small drawings further increased in size for greater clarity. Includes sectional drawings through the heads, spindles, tables and knees etc.



Detailed Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual for this fascinating and beautifully-made machine. A useable Manual but perfect. Individually Illustrated and Numbered Spares. Operator's Instruction, Maintenance and repair Parts.



Instruction Manual and Illustrated Parts Manual. Includes two small supplementary booklets and a large Electrical Schematic. Every calculation carefully explained with useful suggestions. It's aim is to condense as much as possible the solution of all problems in gearing which in ordinary practice may be met with Parts Manual as Exploded Component Drawings.



English, French, German, Italian and Spanish text. Illustrated list with Sectional Drawings. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance manual German Text. Originally prepared as part of a photographic essay of Bryant.



Spare Parts Manual as Sectional Drawings. Attachments Parts Book as Sectional Drawings includes: Operator's Hand book and Maintenance Manual. Spare Parts Manual as Sectional drawings.



Spare Parts Manual as Engineering Drawings. Spare Parts as Photographic plates. Maintenance and Dismantling Manual with some very useful sectional drawings. Complete set of above three publications: Spare Parts Manual with Sectional Drawings.



Maintenance and Dismantling Manual. Special Parts Manual for the Attachments: Spare Parts as Sectional Drawings. Operator's Manual with wiring diagram. Motor Controller for Spindle Drives: Operating Instructions with Sectional Drawings.



Spare Parts as sectional Drawings. Spares Parts Book as Photographs. Specifications, Hydraulic Schematic and oil capcities, Spindle-drive drawings, sectional drawings of the front drive, main drive, spindle details, feed drive bracket, base and carrier.



Spindle Synchronizer and Adjustment, gear charts and tables, typical electrical schematics. Instruction Manual and Dividing Tables. Instruction Manual and Parts manual as Exploded component drawings.



Includes a copy of the comprehensive makers Sales and technical Specification Catalogue. Operating and Maintenance Manual with wiring diagrams. Operating Instructions and Parts List.



Includes a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue. Installation, Operation, Maintenance and Servicing Manual. Includes Standard and variable-speed models. Maintenance Manual and Illustrated Parts Manual.



Comprehensive page Combined Manual and Technical Sales and Specification Catalogue that covers all varieties and sizes including the powered models. Includes detailed Sectional Drawings showing individual components.



Set-up and Mounting Instructions. English, French German and Spanish text. Includes a copy of the maker's comprehensive Technical Sales and Specification Catalogue and clear diagrams of the often illegible Screwcutting and Feeds Chart.



Two editions included, early and late, with corresponding detailed Sales and Technical Specification catalogues. This set represents a complete data pack for the two models.



Erecting, Maintenance, Operating Manual. Includes a copy of the maker's comprehensive Sales and Specification catalogue. Engineering Drawings of the Table Assembly. Erecting, Operating and Maintenance Manual.



Users Guide and Programming Manual. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manuals including several large electrical schematics. The definitive guide to capstan Tooling, Toolholders, Accessories, Chucks and Collets of the traditional pattern.



Wonderfully useful page book published by Ward with clear photographs showing the mounting and employment of all types of capstan tooling. Several editions of this book were published - this is the most complete.



Simple Instruction Manual and Parts Manual. All Carba-tec lathes machines use the same base unit and these instructions can be used with other models. Set of dimensioned drawings - unfortunately not a very good quality copy.



Operator's Instructions and Blade Adjustments. Operating and Maintenance Manual with Catalogues. Although not a handbook, there are many descriptive and illustrative details of the machines' construction, drive systems and countershafts including sectional drawings of the various headstocks.



Not a first-class copy. Although not a handbook, there are many descriptive and illustrative details of the machines' construction, drive systems and countershafts including sectional drawings of the various headstocks..



English and German Text. Contains images of the screwcutting charts and the essential thread pick-up and automatic disengage charts - all of which are often missing or damaged on these lathes.



Also includes a copy of the maker's page detailed Technical Specification and Sales Catalogue. A complete data pack including both the earlier, smaller edition of the manual and the later and more complete Edition.



To improve clarity, many of the drawings have been scanned individually at high resolution are blown up to fill a whole page. Also includes a comprehensive beautifully-illustrated Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue.



Instruction Manual with detailed Drawings. Manuals may be available. English, French, German and Italian text. A data packing consisting of: A second different edition of the manual with a Parts List as sectional diagrams.



Operating and Maintenance Instructions with exploded-component pictures Parts list. Covers the Geared-head and flat-belt drive 16", 18" and 20" Engine Lathes and 16" and 18" Manufacturing Lathes.



Chard Full-range Catalogue with superb illustrations of the Timken-bearing lathes with belt and gear-drive headstocks. Operation and Basic Maintenance with Parts as detailed sectional drawings.



Operating Instructions and Parts List as annotated drawings. Instructions for use Manual. The definitive book covering: If you have ever wondered where to find all the basic facts about grinding machines - here they are.



Operating and Maintenance Manual. Maintenance and Operating Manual. Included are an early manual for the "C" and a lathe manual for the "F". Two Large Erection and Foundation drawings. Maintenance and Operating Instructions.



Contains Electrical and Hydraulic Schematics. Operator's Instruction Manual with some parts shown as sectional drawings and hydraulic schematics. This is the fuller edition with all the added supplements.



Also available with Russian text. Maintenance Manual with Sectional Drawings. Operator's Hand book with Parts as Sectional Drawings. A useful Sales and Specification catalogue Not a Manual showing every aspect of the machine and its accessories.



Includes a copy of the maker's page Technical Sales and Specification Catalogue. The only Maker's literature for this lathe is in the form of a useful and detailed Sales and Specification Catalogue - it includes Inch and Metric Screwcutting Charts and an annotated controls drawing.



Blue Print of 3-speed gearbox on leadscrew end and changewheel-carrying arm banjo. Blue print of Apron. Includes an Electrical Schematic. J Model and No. Two editions are included: Includes 5 large Electrical Drawings.



Standard Toolholders and Attachments. Sectional Drawings with dimensions. Comprehensive Operator's Instruction Manual with Parts as detailed sectional drawings. Mark Century S Controls.



Operation Manual with brief Programming Instructions. Includes details of the Contraves Spindle drives. Handbook for Operator's with detailed, sectional parts drawings.



Spares are also available. Three versions were produced: If you are not sure which you have, look here for details: A complete data pack for the miller containing a detailed Operator's Instruction Manual, Service Manual and Parts Manual with Sectional Engineering Drawings, two electrical schematics and the alignment test charts.



Includes a copy of the maker's comprehensive Sales and Technical Specification Catalogue. A complete data pack for the machine. Two very large electrical schematics issued by the factory.



If you are not sure which one you have, look here for details: Detailed Operator's Instruction Book. These changed over the years but the excellent manuals available reflect these in a most comprehensive way.



However, If you are not sure which of the following is suitable for your machine please phone: Service Manual and Parts Catalogue with photographs of components. As made from the s until the mid s.



Maintenance and Parts Manual - the latter as clear, exploded-component drawings. This edition covers the later machines with a spindle speeds dial on the left-hand face of the column and a separate feeds dial on the left-hand face of the knee.



These models had a speed dial on the column and a feed dial on the side of the knee. Two editions are available: Includes a useful Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue showing the various models and accessories.



Service Manual and Illustrated Parts Manual. Includes 2 detailed Hydraulic and Electrical schematics. Illustrated Parts Manual with very clear exploded-assembly diagrams. Functioning of the degree Automatic Tracing Attachment.



Special booklet explaining in detail how this unit works. Parts Manual as clear exploded-component Drawings. Parts and Service Repair Book circa Parts List as Exploded Component Drawings. Detailed page Operator's Instruction Book.



Service Manual and Parts as Sectional Drawings. Sales and Specification catalogue but contains the essential table of angular divisions. Two editions are included that cover: A complete data pack including everything known about these machines.



Operating instructions with Engineering Drawings and 7 large and Electrical Schematics. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance manual. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance hand book. Detailed Parts' List as Sectional Drawings.



Includes 7 large electrical schematics. Detailed page Service manual and parts manual showing every aspect of the machine and its Accessories. Detailed page Service Manual and Parts Manual showing every aspect of the machine and its accessories.



Detailed Service Manual and Parts Manual as fold-out Sectional Drawings showing every aspect of the machine and its accessories. Detailed page Service Manual and Parts Manual as exploded component diagrams showing every aspect of the machine.



Parts Manual as Exploded Component Pictures. Plain Hydraulic Surface Grinders. Instruction Manual and Parts as Engineering Drawings. Parts manual as Sectional Drawings.



Comprehensive page guide to the company's products with useful and straightforward notes about the best use of different milling cutters and superb Sectional Drawings of the cutter holders and collet fixings.



Individual Hand books are available for both the various models and the individual accessories. Alternatively a complete Data Pack can be provided that covers the entire range of products:. Operator's Guide - useful details of how to properly employ this popular fitting together with descriptions of all the various cutter types and their best use.



A complete page data set for the Mk. Included is a separate early edition that shows, in greater detail, how to set up many common tool-grinding jobs. This manual can be used to help with other makes of cutter grinder for which Instructions are not available.



Radius Fixture - Operator's Instruction Manual. Air-bearing Flute Grinding Attachment. Controlled Spiral Grinding Attachment. Useful in showing the range and mounting of the various Accessories.



Operation and Checking Manual with additional and separate electrical sheets for the Oscillator and Test panel, Automatic Tuning Arrangement and an external Cable Arrangement. Explanatory Booklet - which details the principles, which must be adhered to for successful operation of a Tool and Cutter Grinder.



Shows specific examples with wonderful photographs and explanations. The instructions are also applicable to other makes of grinder. If your model is not shown please enquire details at top of page.



Operation, Maintenance and Parts Manual. Includes copies of both early and late Technical Sales and Specification Catalogues. Comprehensive Operating and Maintenance Manual with Illustrated Parts Manual as Exploded Drawings much of the Manual applies to the ordinary inch lathes as well and the extra instructions and charts for the metric screwcutting arrangement.



Included is a copy of the maker's Sales and Specification and Accessory Catalog. Combined manual for all three types as a page Instruction and Maintenance Manual and Illustrated Parts Manual with exploded drawings and Electrical Diagrams.



Includes complete translation of the text into French and German - and copies of the useful Specification, Sales and Specification and Accessories Brochures for each model.



Perfect pictures and diagrams. Pictures of an example here. This lathe was sold in the UK as the Colchester Master This lathe was sold in the UK as the Colchester Student This lathe was sold in the UK as the Triumph Mk.



These lathes were sold in the UK as the "Mascot". These lathes were sold in the UK as the Colchester Mastiff Instruction and Parts Manual. Operating Manual and Parts Manual with exploded assembly diagrams.



Operating and Servicing Manual. Includes wiring and pneumatic schematics. A remarkably eccentric production with not only technical details of the lathe and its accessories also home-sum business philosophies and Strange homilies.



Includes 4 large electrical and mechanical drawings. The package includes two editions - early and late. Also available in Russian. Operator's Instruction, Adjustment and Disassembling Instructions with 6 large drawings.



Maintenance and Operator's instruction Book. Five large drawings showing: Instruction Book and Parts as Component Drawings. Operator's Instruction and Service Manual. Parts Manuals as Sectional Drawings.



Three manuals in one: The manuals contain, amongst other things: These show all versions of the open flat-belt drive and geared-headstock types. Original Model with the two spindle-speed control levers on top of the headstock.



Marked either or rpm top speed. Contains sections with English, French and German text. Includes French and German language sections. A comprehensive Data Pack with both early and late editions of the Instruction and Maintenance Manual and both early and late Parts Manuals as exploded component diagrams.



Covers all models with Imperial or Metric gearboxes and including electrical, variator and drive differences. Two electrical diagrams UK market that are greatly enlarged for clarity and a copy of the Chipmaster Sales, A ccessories and Specification Catalogue.



A fist-class, perfectly prepared publication that is essential reading for this relatively complex lathe. No proper handbook was published until a small A5 edition, complete with a photographic parts list, of the late s.



Unfortunately even this was not complete, as it lacked the comprehensive screwcutting data of the later, larger editions though the screwcutting arrangement was, actually, identical. Therefore, I have put together a pack of data of everything that is known: Round-headstock model but with either a "sliding-lever" on the apron to engage the power feeds or a centrally-mounted single lever control.



A specially assembled Data Pack that gives all known data for these popular lathes comprising: Colchester Student and Master Mk. Includes a copy of the maker's Technical Specification, Sales and Accessories catalogue.



This is the comprehensive page edition. Shows both the left-hand American and right-hand English aprons and includes the carriage-mounted "Trav-a-dial" parts list. Includes a wiring diagram of the rear of the control panel.



A complete page data pack covering all models from the late s on either separate cast-iron plinths or on the later early s full cabinet stands. The literature includes a copy of the first Triumph Operation and Parts Manual originally in A5 format and the later A4 edition covering all models from first to last including the later single-slot safety apron types and all gearbox variants - Standard, Dominion and Continental - as well as the rarer 3rd-shaft control and Hydraulic-copying models.



Includes full screwcutting charts, electrical schematics and several copies of the maker's sales and Specification catalogues dated s to s. This version includes both early and late models with different clutch types, apron modifications, etc.



Also includes extra sections detailing the accessories together with exploded parts diagrams for the: Covers both the early and late models with complete spares lists for both types.



This version has full details in English, French and German. Includes sections on the accessories: Details of the wiring harness cabling specifications, an electrical schematic for the relay board, schematics and constructional details of the headstock push-button assembly, Electrical schematics and layout diagrams of the apron control panels, constructional and layout details of the electrical enclosure assembly, etc.



The two lathes were identical apart from centre height, spindle bore, spindle nose and speeds - the Model "" having a top speed of r. Operation and Parts Manual.



Available in English, French or German. A complete collection of all the literature ever produced for these models Operator's Instruction Manual and Spares as Sectional Drawings. A complete listing of accessories, cutters, milling tools, facing attachments, clamping fixtures, work-holding fixtures, accessories.



Diaphragm Models including the older Models.. Operating Instructions and Sectional Parts Drawings. Instruction Manual and Parts as Sectional Drawings. Used for verifications of diameter, roundness and taper of plug and ring gauges.



Instruction and Maintenance Manual with Electrical Diagrams. Detailed Operating and Maintenance Manual pc. A complete data pack compendium for Coronet products consisting of: This shows the assembly of the machine and the many accessories and how to mount them correctly and safely.



A full manual for the Minor and Minorette. A very interesting booklet: A collection early and late Coronet advertising literature including the Major and Minor lathes, the Minorette Woodworking Centre and the Minorette "in-one".



These show the mounting of each accessory including: A compendium of every known publication for these models. Maker's Assembly and Instruction Manual with exploded component diagrams. Highly detailed, page, copiously-illustrated large-format edition that gives complete data, with in stage-by-stage illustrations, of how to operate, dismantle and service these units manufactured by Herbert.



Craftsman 6-inch Lathe Mk. A complete Data Pack consisting of: Also included are detailed Craftsman and Atlas advertisements detailing the technical specification and accessories - the main elements of these publications being the more informative Atlas publications.



While the ordinary manual has just 8 pages this is a complete pack with 62 pages. Includes a copy of the Sales and Specification catalogue. Operating Manual and Illustrated Spares Sheets for all models: This edition is for the very early metal-turning lathe with the multiple V-belt drive.



It was also sold with "Atlas" and "Metalmaster" badges. Click here for pictures Various Models including: A complete package of information that covers all models from the original s lathe a clone of the Atlas inch to last version in Click This model was identical to the Atlas inch and sometimes branded as the "Commercial".



It is also found with the following and probably additional Model Numbers: Pictures can be found here: Includes the first-edition, beautifully illustrated Sales and Specification and Accessories Catalogue No.



Includes a copy of the original Sales and Specification catalogues Atlas and Craftsman that show all versions of the miller, give detailed specifications, illustrate the extensive accessory range and give accurate descriptions of the construction, parts and controls.



Published from the s to the s. Assembly, Operating and Illustrated Parts Manual. Parts List as useful Sectional Drawings. Operating and Setting Manual. Operator's Manual - French text.



Spare Parts Manual as useful and detailed Sectional Drawings. A compendium of all available Cromwell literature including a Sales and Specification catalogue for the 4-inch Mk. Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual with.



Electrical drawings and many useful Sectional Drawings. Brief page Operator's Instruction and Maintenance Manual with. Includes a wiring diagram. Parts as Sectional Drawings and Electrical Schematics.



Owner's manual with electrical schematics. Until the zone in which the drilling fluid has been lost is sealed off, drilling cannot be resumed in most cases.



Act of screwing a single joint of drill pipe into the drilling string suspended in the wellbore. The addition of this joint of pipe permits deepening of the hole the length of the joint added, or about 30 feet 9 meters.



Refers to progress being made at a given time when the bit is rotating and the wellbore is being deepened. In other words, drilling. Hoisting of the drill string out of, and returning it into, the wellbore.



This is done for the purpose of changing bits, preparing to take a core, etc. Act of screwing a joint into another section of pipe. Portable derrick capable of being erected as a unit, as opposed to a standard derrick, which cannot be raised to a working position as a unit, since it is of bolted construction and must be assembled part by part.



Natural movement of oil or gas within or out of a formation. Preparation of drilling fluids from a mixture of water and other fluids and one or more of the various dry mud-making materials such as clay, chemical, etc.



Platform on which the derrickhand works during the time the crew is making a trip. Crew member responsible for the care and operation of the rig motors. Hole drilled under the derrick floor and temporarily cased in which a single joint of pipe is placed awaiting connection to the drill string.



Usually colloidal suspensions of clays in water with chemical additives that are circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling and workover operations.



Can use oil as the main medium. Completion of a well in such a way that production is obtained from several different formations. A lateral deviation created by the tendency of a bit to sidetrack in a soft formation.



Well location adjoining another well site. Loosely defined term referring to an area where oil is found. May also include the oil reservoir, the surface and wells, and production equipment.



Uncased part of a well. Person, whether proprietor or lessee, who actually operates the well. Generally, the oil company by whom the drilling contractor is engaged. Producing formation, or that formation which represents the objective of drilling.



Rate at which the drill bit proceeds in the deepening of the wellbore and usually expressed as feet meters per hour. To pierce holes through well casing within an oil or gas-bearing formation by means of a perforating gun lowered down the hole and fired electrically from the surface.



The perforations permit production from a formation which has been cased off. Capacity of a porous rock formation to allow fluid to flow within the interconnecting pore network.



Oilfield tubular goods such as casing, drill pipe, tubing, or pipeline. Series of parallel heavy wooden or steel bents secured in place by bracing on which pipe is stored. Object or device that serves to block a hole or passageway such as a cement plug in a borehole.



Act of placing cement plugs in a hole to prevent unwanted vertical migration in an abandoned well. Volume of pore spaces between mineral grains expressed as a percentage of the total rock volume.



Thus porosity measures the capacity of the rock to hold oil, gas, or water. The operation of bringing the well fluids to the surface and separating them, and storing, gauging, and otherwise preparing product for the pipeline.



Also refers to the amount of oil or gas produced over a given period. Shallow bore under the derrick substructure in which the kelly joint is temporarily set while making a connection.



Well drilled at an angle from a point close to a "wild" well that will intercept theoriginal well as part of control procedure. A reservoir can contain more than one pool. The derrick, drawworks, and attendant surface equipment of a drilling or workover unit.



Several types of rigs should be included such as deep, shallow, stratigraphic, etc. Act of getting a rig assembled and ready to start drilling. Method of drilling in which the drill pipe is rotated to rotate a bit.



Equipment over the wellbore which transfers power from the engines to produce a rotary motion. Via bushings and gears the rotary motion is transferred to the kelly and through to the drill string.



Industry slang for floorhand. Steel cable attached to the monkey board and anchored to the ground at some distance from the rig. It is used by the derrickhand to slide clear of danger in an emergency.



Method of fracturing subsurface rock formations by injection of fluid and sand under high pressure to increase permeability. Fractures induced in the rock by the hydraulic pressure are kept open by the grains of sand.



Steel, wire-fingered device fastened to the casing which removes the mud cake from the hole to condition it for cementing. Apparatus used to measure and record vibrations in the earth.



It is used to detect possible oil-bearing structures. Installation of steel pipe or casing in a wellbore, normally cemented in place by surrounding it with a wall of cement. Drilling past an obstruction in the hole, usually done using a special tool known as a whipstock.



One joint of drill pipe. Drilling in which the hole size is smaller than the conventional hole diameter, enabling the operator to run smaller casing, thereby decreasing the cost of completion.



Ratio of weight of any substance to weight of equal volume of another substance, usually water as the standard for solids and liquid. Commencement of actual drilling of well.



A centralizer installed in the drill string to center the string in the hole and to stiffen the string to resist bending and deviation. Two, three, and sometimes four joints of pipe fastened together, called a double, thribble, or fourble, respectively.



Well drilled adjacent or near to proven well to ascertain the limits of the reservoir. The entire length of casing, tubing, or drill pipe. Drill pipe, casing, or tubing that cannot be worked in or out of the hole as desired.



Foundation on which the derrick and engines sit. Contains space for storage and well control equipment. First string of casing set in well. Operation using a swab to bring well fluids to the surface when the well does not flow naturally.



Trough-shaped subsurface structure of folded stratified rock. Drilling a well in which the information obtained is restricted and passed only to those authorized to receive it. Stand of pipe made up of three joints handled as a unit.



Foreman in charge of the drilling rig operations and crew members. Maximum depth reached in a well. Work shift of a drilling crew, usually pronounce as though it were spelled t-o-w-e-r. Any geological structure which precludes the migration of oil and gas through subsurface rocks, causing the hydrocarbons to accumulate into pools.



Making a trip; operation of hoisting pipe out of, and returning it to, the wellbore. Downhole assembly of bit and motor in which the bit alone is rotated by means of fluid turbine which is activated by the drilling mud.



The mud turbine is usually placed just above the bit. Slang term referring to actual drilling time as opposed to repair time, trip time, etc. Contract under which contractor carries out and completes his assignment for a fixed fee, as opposed to working on per diem basis.



To fracture a joint of drill pipe in two, necessitating a recovery or fishing operation. A cavity in a rock. Time period that drilling is suspended while the cement used to hold casing in the wellbore hardens.



The hole made by a drilling bit. Recording information about subsurface geologic formations; methods include records kept by the driller, mud and cutting analysis, core analysis, drill stem tests, electric and radioactivity procedures.



Long steel wedge used to deflect the bit from the original borehole at a slight angle for controlled directional drilling, for straightening crooked holes, and for sidetracking in or to bypass an unretrieved fish.



Well drilled in unproven territory. To carry out remedial operations on an producing well with the intention of restoring or increasing production. Engineering Services and Project Management Fox Oil Drilling Company provides well engineering services ranging from specific engineering studies to the design and management of major drilling projects.



Our goal is to tailor our services to specific customer needs, whether it be the provision of a single engineer in Thailand or the design, supervision and drilling of a full-field development project in the Gulf of Mexico.



Our engineers have particular expertise in extended reach drilling, underbalanced drilling, high pressure-high temperature drilling, and completion and testing. We have established a special technology team to ensure consistency in planning and execution of ERD wells, and have developed a detailed ERD well template, ERD specific drilling guidelines and drilling rig analysis tools.



Underbalanced Drilling Underbalanced drilling is an advanced technique involving the deliberate reduction of the drilling mud weight. This allows the well to flow while drilling so that the formation is not invaded by the drilling fluid.



Underbalanced drilling requires special equipment such as drill-through blowout preventers and special facilities for storing or burning of produced fluids. With live hydrocarbons at the surface, Fox Oil Drilling Company is particularly attentive to carefully plan and control this operation.



Completion and Testing Completion and testing services provided by Fox Oil Drilling Company include planning and design of surface completions; specifying equipment and services; and managing and supervising operations.



Key skills include planning and design of wellbore cleanout, coiled tubing operations, HPHT drill stem testing, acid stimulations and high rate well testing. Additionally, our well engineers also provide feasibility studies, design services, non-productive time analysis, well abandonment studies and rig interface studies.



Previous work has included field development studies for well design, drilling unit sizing and field architecture options. At Fox Oil Drilling Company, we understand that our success is directly linked to the success of our customers.



For that reason, we continually focus on enhancing our equipment and services in order to better serve our customers. Areas of Interest Texas District 5: Two types of plays are driving activity in District 5: The median depth of the wells drilled in the Bossier and Cotton Valley formations is about 12, feet.



The median depth of the Barnett Shale in District 5 is about 9, feet. The Cotton Valley play extends from District 5 into District 6. The median depth of wells in District 6 is 10, feet.



The average depth of the Anadarko Basin wells in District 10 is about 10, feet. Most of the wells are drilled for tight gas. About half the wells completed in Oklahoma are in the Anadarko Basin.



The median well depth is about 8, feet, but many wells are drilled to about 20, feet. Wells drilled in Southeastern New Mexico are primarily drilled for oil. The median depth of those wells is 8, Some wells are drilled to nearly 17, feet.



Colorado has four active natural gas basins with the Denver Basin being the largest. The median depth in the Denver Basin is 7, feet. Another increasingly active basin is the coalbed methane play in the Piceance Basin.



The median well depth is 7, feet. The median well depth in the Green River Basin is about 10, feet and those wells are drilled for tight gas. Overview of Land-Based Drilling Drilling Equipment A land drilling rig consists of engines, a hoisting system, a rotating system, pumps and related equipment to circulate drilling fluid, blowout preventers and related equipment.



Diesel or gas engines are typically the main power sources for a drilling rig. Power requirements for drilling jobs may vary considerably, but most land drilling rigs employ two or more engines to generate between and 2, horsepower, depending on well depth and rig design.



Most drilling rigs capable of drilling in deep formations, involving depths greater than 15, feet, use diesel-electric power units to generate and deliver electric current through cables to electrical switch gears, then to direct-current electric motors attached to the equipment in the hoisting, rotating and circulating systems.



Drilling rigs use long strings of drill pipe and drill collars to drill wells. Drilling rigs are also used to set heavy strings of large-diameter pipe, or casing, inside the borehole.



Because the total weight of the drill string and the casing can exceed, pounds, drilling rigs require significant hoisting and braking capacities. The drawworks mechanism consists of a revolving drum, around which the drilling line is wound, and a series of shafts, clutches and chain and gear drives for generating speed changes and reverse motion.



The drawworks also houses the main brake, which has the capacity to stop and sustain the weights used in the drilling process. When heavy loads are being lowered, a hydraulic or electric auxiliary brake assists the main brake to absorb the great amount of energy developed by the mass of the traveling block, hook assembly, drill pipe, drill collars and drill bit or casing being lowered into the well.



The rotating equipment from top to bottom consists of a swivel, the kelly bushing, the kelly, the rotary table, drill pipe, drill collars and the drill bit. The equipment between the swivel and the drill bit is referred to as the drill stem.



The swivel assembly sustains the weight of the drill stem, permits its rotation and affords a rotating pressure seal and passageway for circulating drilling fluid into the top of the drill string.



The swivel also has a large handle that fits inside the hook assembly at the bottom of the traveling block. Drilling fluid enters the drill stem through a hose, called the rotary hose, attached to the side of the swivel.



The kelly is a triangular, square or hexagonal piece of pipe, usually 40 feet long, that transmits torque from the rotary table to the drill stem and permits its vertical movement as it is lowered into the hole.



The bottom end of the kelly fits inside a corresponding triangular, square or hexagonal opening in a device called the kelly bushing. The kelly bushing, in turn, fits into a part of the rotary table called the master bushing.



As the master bushing rotates, the kelly bushing also rotates, turning the kelly, which rotates the drill pipe and thus the drill bit. Drilling fluid is pumped through the kelly on its way to the bottom.



The rotary table, equipped with its master bushing and kelly bushing, supplies the necessary torque to turn the drill stem. The drill pipe and drill collars are both steel tubes through which drilling fluid can be pumped.



Drill pipe, sometimes called drill string, comes in foot sections, or joints, with threaded sections on each end. Drill collars are heavier than drill pipe and are also threaded on the ends.



Collars are used on the bottom of the drill stem to apply weight to the drilling bit. At the end of the drill stem is the bit, which chews up the formation rock and dislodges it so that drilling fluid can circulate the fragmented material back up to the surface where the circulating system filters it out of the fluid.



Drilling fluid, often called mud, is a mixture of clays, chemicals and water or oil, which is carefully formulated for the particular well being drilled. Drilling mud accounts for a major portion of the equipment and cost of drilling a well.



Bulk storage of drilling fluid materials, the pumps and the mud-mixing equipment are placed at the start of the circulating system. Working mud pits and reserve storage are at the other end of the system.



Between these two points, the circulating system includes auxiliary equipment for drilling fluid maintenance and equipment for well pressure control. Within the system, the drilling mud is typically routed from the mud pits to the mud pump and from the mud pump through a standpipe and the rotary hose to the drill stem.



The drilling mud travels down the drill stem to the bit, up the annular space between the drill stem and the borehole and through the blowout preventer stack to the return flow line.



It then travels to a shale shaker for removal of rock cuttings, and then back to the mud pits, which are usually steel tanks. The reserve pits, usually one or two fairly shallow excavations, are used for waste material and excess water around the location.



There are numerous factors that differentiate land drilling rigs, including their power generation systems and their drilling depth capabilities. The actual drilling depth capability of a rig may be less than or more than its rated depth capability due to numerous factors, including the size, weight and amount of the drill pipe on the rig.



The intended well depth and the drill site conditions determine the amount of drill pipe and other equipment needed to drill a well. Generally, land rigs operate with crews of five to six persons.



Drilling Contracts Contracts for drilling oil and gas wells can be obtained either through competitive bidding or through direct negotiations with customers. Typical drilling contracts generally provide for compensation on either a daywork or footage basis.



The contract terms offered generally depend on the complexity and risk of operations, the on-site drilling conditions, the type of equipment used and the anticipated duration of the work to be performed.



Generally, drilling contracts provide for the drilling of a single well and typically permit the customer to terminate on short notice, usually on payment of an agreed fee. Under daywork drilling contracts, the contractor provides a drilling rig with required personnel to the customer who supervises the drilling of the well.



The contractor is paid based on a negotiated fixed rate per day while the rig is used. Daywork drilling contracts specify the equipment to be used, the size of the hole and the depth of the well.



Under a daywork drilling contract, the customer bears a large portion of the out-of-pocket drilling costs and the contractor generally bears no part of the usual risks associated with drilling, such as time delays and unanticipated costs.



Under footage contracts, the contractor is paid a fixed amount for each foot drilled, regardless of the time required or the problems encountered in drilling the well.



The contractor typically pays more of the out-of - pocket costs associated with footage contracts as compared to daywork contracts. Insurance coverage can be maintained to protect against some, but not all, drilling hazards under this type of arrangement.



To cease work on a well which is non-productive, to plug off the well with cement plugs and salvage all recoverable equipment Also used in the context of field abandonment. Operator's development plan for an offshore installation.



It requires government approval before it can be implemented. The space between the drillstring and the well wall, or between casing strings, or between the casing and the production tubing.



A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling program which is carried out to determine the physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a field. Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, which may be dissolved in the oil at reservoir conditions or may form a cap of free gas above the oil.



A unit of volume measurement used for petroleum and its products 7. A North Sea acreage sub-division measuring approximately 10 x 20 kms, forming part of a quadrant. Condensate and gas is produced simultaneously from the outset of production.



Are high pressure wellhead valves, designed to shut off the uncontrolled flow of hydrocarbons. When well pressure exceeds the ability of the wellhead valves to control it. Oil and gas "blow wild" at the surface.



The hole as drilled by the drill bit. The steel tubing that lines a well after it has been drilled. It is formed from sections of steel tube screwed together. A range of exploration drilling scenarios from which the following activity levels, based on recent historical experience, are adopted as the central estimates.



The assembly of fittings and valves on the top of the casing which control the production rate of oil. The installation of permanent wellhead equipment for the production of oil and gas.



Hydrocarbons which are in the gaseous state under reservoir conditions and which become liquid when temperature or pressure is reduced. A mixture of pentanes and higher hydrocarbons. Salt water occurring with oil and gas in the reservoir.



Taking rock samples from a well by means of a special tool - a "core barrel". A large barge, capable of lifting heavy equipment onto offshore platforms. Also known as a "derrick barge". A statistical technique which recognises that in any exploration province after an initial period in which the largest fields are found, success rates and average field sizes decline as more exploration wells are drilled and knowledge of the area matures.



Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era. Rock chippings cut from the formation by the drill bit, and brought to the surface with the mud. Used by geologists to obtain formation data. The tower-like structure that houses most of the drilling controls.



The phase in which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production development wells. A drilling unit that is not permanently fixed to the seabed, e. Also means the derrick and its associated machinery.



Natural gas composed mainly of methane with only minor amounts of ethane, propane and butane and little or no heavier hydrocarbons in the gasoline range.



A well which has proved to be non-productive. Abbreviation for exploration and appraisal. Abbreviation for exploration and production. A process whereby oil is recovered other than by the natural pressure in a reservoir.



Drilling carried out to determine whether hydrocarbons are present in a particular area or structure. The phase of operations which covers the search for oil or gas by carrying out detailed geological and geophysical surveys followed up where appropriate by exploratory drilling.



A well drilled in an unproven area. Also known as a "wildcat well". When a company acquires an interest in a block by taking over all or part of the financial commitment for drilling an exploration well.



A geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies. Retrieving objects from the borehole, such as a broken drillstring, or tools. The pressure at the bottom of a well when it is shut in at the wellhead.



Salt water underlying gas and oil in the formation. A method of breaking down a formation by pumping fluid at very high pressures. The objective is to increase production rates from a reservoir.



A field containing natural gas but no oil. The process whereby separated associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir for conservation purposes or to maintain the reservoir pressure.



The volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit of oil produced. A compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon. May exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas. The term is mainly used in a catch-all sense for oil, gas and condensate.



A well used for pumping water or gas into the reservoir. The lower section, or "legs", of an offshore platform. A well is said to "kick" if the formation pressure exceeds the pressure exerted by the mud column.



A barge that is specially equipped to lay submarine pipelines. Liquefied natural gas LNG: Oilfield or naturally occurring gas, chiefly methane, liquefied for transportation.



Liquefied petroleum gas LPG: Light hydrocarbon material, gaseous at atmospheric temperature and pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport and handling.



Commercial liquefied gas consists essentially of either propane or butane, or mixtures thereof. Million Barrels Oil Equivalent. Equivalent to kilos, Millions of cubic feet per day of gas.



An aperture in the centre of a drillship or semi-submersible drilling rig, through which drilling and diving operations can be conducted. A mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate the drill bit and to counteract the natural pressure of the formation.



Gas, occurring naturally, and often found in association with crude petroleum. Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas. A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights.



A geographic area under which an oil reservoir lies. An estimated measure of the total amount of oil contained in a reservoir, and, as such, a higher figure than the estimated recoverable reserves of oil.



The company that has legal authority to drill wells and undertake production of hydrocarbons are found. The Operator is often part of a consortium and acts on behalf of this consortium.



Rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities. The property of a formation which quantifies the flow of a fluid through the pore spaces and into the wellbore.



A generic name for hydrocarbons, including crude oil, natural gas liquids, natural gas and their products. An offshore structure that is permanently fixed to the seabed. The percentage of void in a porous rock compared to the solid formation.



Recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir purely by using the natural pressure in the reservoir to force the oil or gas out. Those reserves which on the available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible i.



The underground formation where oil and gas has accumulated It consists of a porous rock to hold the oil or gas, and a cap rock that prevents its escape. A pipe between a seabed BOP and a floating drilling rig.



The section of pipework that joins a seabed wellhead to the Christmas tree. Drill crew members who work on the derrick floor, screwing together the sections of drillpipe when running or pulling a drillstring.



Drill crew members who handle the loading and unloading of equipment and assist in general operations around the rig. The cash or kind paid to the owner of mineral rights.



Recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir by artificially maintaining or enhancing the reservoir pressure by injecting gas, water or other substances into the reservoir rock. A production hiatus during which the platform ceases to produce while essential maintenance work is undertaken.



The operation of drilling the first part of a new well. A well that has been capped off temporarily. Trillion Cubic Feet of gas. Second-in-command of a drilling crew under the drilling superintendent.



Responsible for the day-to-day running of the rig and for ensuring that all the necessary equipment is available. The superstructure of a platform. United Kingdom Continental Shelf. Offshore Operators Association Limited.



A record of geological formation penetrated during drilling, including technical details of the operation. Also known as a "exploration well". The term comes from exploration wells in West Texas in the s.



Wildcats were abundant in the locality, and those unlucky enough to be shot were hung from oil derricks. Remedial work to the equipment within a well, the well pipework, or relating to attempts to increase the rate of flow.



West of Shetland Isles. We are targeting exploratory plays with large acreage positions and multi-million barrel of oil equivalent reserves. The Company will take farmouts to drill with its own rigs and will also participate alongside other industry partners.



Depending on the experience of the operator, Fox Oil Drilling Company will consider non-operating working interests. However, the Company prefers being the operator and drilling contractor.



Fox Oil Drilling's Chairman, Jason Fox, has been involved in oil exploration and production since The Company's team of geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers can evaluate your prospects in a confidential and timely manner.



We welcome you to submit your prospects to us for review. Oil exploration Oil exploration is the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface.



Oil and gas exploration are grouped under the science of petroleum geology. Exploration methods Visible surface features such as oil seeps, natural gas seeps, pockmarks underwater craters caused by escaping gas provides basic evidence of hydrocarbon generation be it shallow or deep in the Earth ; however, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits.



Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey or magnetic survey to detect large scale features of the sub-surface geology.



Features of interest known as leads are subjected to more detailed seismic surveys which works on the principle of the time it takes for reflected sound waves to travel through matter rock of varying densities and using the process of depth conversion to create a profile of the substructure.



Finally, when a prospect has been identified evaluated and passes the oil companies selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled to conclusively determine the presence or absence of oil or gas.



Oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation. Offshore and remote area exploration is generally only undertaken by very large corporations or national governments, typical Shallow shelf oil wells e.



Elements of a Petroleum Prospect A petroleum prospect is a potential trap which geologists believe may contain petroleum. There are five elements which all have to be present for a prospect to contain hydrocarbons.



If any of them fail, then we get a dry hole. A source rock - When organic-rich rock such as oil shale or coal is subjected to high pressure and temperature over an extended period of time, hydrocarbons form.



Migration - The Hydrocarbons are expelled from source rock by three density-related mechanisms: Most hydrocarbons migrate to the surface as oil seeps, but some will get trapped.



Trap - The hydrocarbons are buoyant and have to be trapped within a structural e. Seal or cap Rock - The hydrocarbon trap has to be covered by an impermeable rock known as a seal or cap-rock in order to prevent hydrocarbons escaping to the surface.



Reservoir - The hydrocarbons are contained in a reservoir rock. This is a porous sandstone or limestone. The oil collects in the pores within the rock. The reservoir must also be permeable so that the hydrocarbons will flow to surface during production.



Terms used in petroleum evaluation Lead - a feature which may contain hydrocarbons Prospect - a Lead which has been fully evaluated and is ready to drill Chance of Success - An estimate of the chance of all the elements see above within a prospect working, described as a probability.



Hydrocarbon in Place - amount of hydrocarbon likely to be contained in the prospect. The FVF converts volumes at reservoir conditions high pressure and high temperature to storage and sale conditions Recoverable hydrocarbons - amount of hydrocarbon likely to be recovered during production.



Licensing Petroleum resources are typically owned by the government of the host country. The government issues licences to explore, develop and produce its oil and gas resources, which are typically administered by the oil ministry.



There are several different types of licence. Typically oil companies operate in joint ventures to spread the risk, one of the companies in the partnership is designated the operator who actually supervises the work.



Tax and Royalty - Companies would pay a royalty on any oil produced, together with a profits tax which can have expenditure offset against it. In some cases there are also various bonuses and ground rents licence fees payable to the government - for example a signature bonus payable at the start of the licence.



Licences are awarded in competitive bid rounds on the basis of either the size of the work programme number of wells, seismic etc or size of the signature bonus.



There are also various bonuses to be paid. Development expenditure is offset against production revenue. Service contract - This is when an oil company acts as a contractor for the host government, being paid to produce the hydrocarbons.



Reserves and resources Resources are hydrocarbons which may or may not be produced in the future. A resource number may be assigned to an undrilled prospect or an unappraised discovery.



Appraisal by drilling additional delineation wells or acquiring extra seismic data will confirm the size of the field and lead to project sanction. A this point the relevant government body gives the oil company a production licence which enables the field to be developed.



This is also the point at which oil reserves can be formally booked. Definition of oil reserves Oil reserves are a primarily a measure of geological risk - of the probability of oil existing and being producible under current economic conditions using current technology.



The three categories of reserves generally used are proven, probable, and possible reserves. Proven reserves - defined as oil and gas "Reasonably Certain" to be producable using current technology at current prices, with current commercial terms and government consent - also known in the industry as 1P.



Some Industry specialists refer to this as P90 - i. The Reserves of any company listed on the New York Stock Exchange - which in practice means virtually every commercial company in the world - have to be stated to the U.



Securities and Exchange Commission. In many cases these reported reserves are audited by external geologists, although this is not a legal requirement. Securities and Exchange Commission rejects the probability concept and prohibits companies from mentioning probable and possible reserves in their filings.



Thus, official estimates of proven reserves will always be understated compared to what oil companies think actually exists. For practical puposes companies will use proven plus probable estimate 2P, and for long term planning they will be looking primarily at possible reserves.



Petroleum Petroleum from Greek petra — rock and elaion — oil or Latin oleum — oil or crude oil is a black, dark brown or greenish liquid found in porous rock formations in the earth. The American Petroleum Institute, in its Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards MPMS, defines it as "a substance, generally liquid, occurring naturally in the earth and composed mainly of mixtures of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen with or without other nonmetallic elements such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.



It consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly alkanes, but may vary greatly in appearance and composition. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and petrol gasoline, both important "primary energy" sources IEA Key World Energy Statistics.



Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. Known reserves of petroleum are estimated at around gigabarrels, that is, one thousand billion, and consumption is currently around 84 million barrels per day, or 31 gigabarrels per year.



Since petroleum is a non-renewable resource, many people are worried about peak oil and eventual depletion in the near future. Due to its continual demand and consequent value, oil has been dubbed black gold.



The combining form of the word petroleum is petro-, as in petrodiesel petroleum diesel. Formation Biogenic theory Most geologists view crude oil, like coal and natural gas, as the product of compression and heating of ancient organic materials over geological time.



According to this theory, oil is formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric zooplankton and algae which have been settled to the sea bottom in large quantities under anoxic conditions.



Terrestrial plants tend to form coal, and very few dinosaurs have been converted into oil. Over geological time this organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried under heavy layers of sediment.



The resulting high levels of heat and pressure cause the remains to metamorphose, first into a waxy material known as kerogen which is found in various oil shales around the world, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis.



Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water, these sometimes migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until they become trapped beneath impermeable rocks, within porous rocks called reservoirs.



Concentration of hydrocarbons in a trap forms an oil field, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping. Geologists often refer to an "oil window" which is the temperature range that oil forms in—below the minimum temperature oil remains trapped in the form of kerogen, and above the maximum temperature the oil is converted to natural gas through the process of thermal cracking.



Though this happens at different depths in different locations around the world, a 'typical' depth for the oil window might be 4—6 km. Note that even if oil is formed at extreme depths, it may be trapped at much shallower depths, even if it is not formed there.



In the case of the Athabasca Oil Sands, it is found right at the surface. Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: If an oil well were to run dry and be capped, it would likely fill back to its original supply eventually.



There is considerable question about how long this would take. Some formations appear to have a regeneration time of decades. The vast majority of oil that has been produced by the earth has long ago escaped to the surface and been biodegraded by oil-eating bacteria.



What oil companies are looking for is the small fraction that has been trapped by this rare combination of circumstances. Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping, but contain so much migrating oil that, although most of it has escaped, vast amounts are still present - more than can be found in conventional oil reservoirs.



On the other hand, oil shales are source rocks that have never been buried deep enough to convert their trapped kerogen into oil. The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where kerogen is broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions.



The first set was originally patented in under British Crown Patent No. Abiogenic theory The idea of abiogenic petroleum origin was championed in the Western world by astronomer Thomas Gold based on thoughts from Russia, mainly on studies of Nikolai Kudryavtsev.



The idea proposes that hydrocarbons of purely geological origin exist in the planet. Hydrocarbons are less dense than aqueous pore fluids, and are proposed to migrate upward through deep fracture networks.



Thermophilic, rock-dwelling microbial life-forms are proposed to be in part responsible for the biomarkers found in petroleum. However, this theory is a minority opinion, especially amongst geologists and no oil companies are currently known to explore for oil based on this theory.



Extraction Locating an oil field is the first obstacle to be overcome. Today, geologists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs.



The "classic" method includes making underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures under the ground [1].



However the "passive" methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also known [2]. Other instruments such as gravimeters and magnetometers are also sometimes used in the search for petroleum.



Generally, the first stage in the extraction of crude oil is to drill a well into the underground reservoir. When an oil bearing structure has been tapped, the wellsite geologist known on the rig as the "mudlogger" will note its presence.



Historically, in the USA, some oil fields existed where the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been depleted, except for certain remote locations in Alaska.



Often many wells called multilateral wells are drilled into the same reservoir, to ensure that the extraction rate will be economically viable. Also, some wells secondary wells may be used to pump water, steam, acids or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure, and so maintain an economic extraction rate.



If the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient, then the oil will be forced to the surface under this pressure. Gaseous fuels, natural gas or water are usually present, which also supply needed underground pressure.



In this situation it is sufficient to place a complex arrangement of valves the Christmas tree on the well head to connect the well to a pipeline network for storage and processing.



This is called primary oil recovery. The amount of oil that is recoverable is determined by a number of factors including the permeability of the rocks, the strength of natural drives the gas present, pressure from adjacent water or gravity, and the viscosity of the oil.



When the reservoir rocks are "tight" such as shale, oil generally cannot flow through but when they are permeable such as in sandstone, oil flows freely. The flow of oil is often helped by natural pressures surrounding the reservoir rocks including natural gas that may be dissolved in the oil, natural gas present above the oil, water below the oil and the strength of gravity.



Oils tend to span a large range of viscosity from liquids as light as gasoline to heavy as tar. The lightest forms tend to result in higher production rates. Over the lifetime of the well the pressure will fall, and at some point there will be insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface.



If economical, and it often is, the remaining oil in the well is extracted using secondary oil recovery methods see: Secondary oil recovery uses various techniques to aid in recovering oil from depleted or low-pressure reservoirs.



Sometimes pumps, such as beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps ESPs, are used to bring the oil to the surface. Other secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir's pressure by water injection, natural gas reinjection and gas lift, which injects air, carbon dioxide or some other gas into the reservoir.



Tertiary oil recovery reduces the oil's viscosity to increase oil production. Tertiary recovery is started when secondary oil recovery techniques are no longer enough to sustain production, but only when the oil can still be extracted profitably.



This depends on the cost of the extraction method and the current price of crude oil. When prices are high, previously unprofitable wells are brought back into production and when they are low, production is curtailed.



Thermally enhanced oil recovery methods TEOR are tertiary recovery techniques that heat the oil and make it easier to extract. Steam injection is the most common form of TEOR, and is often done with a cogeneration plant.



In this type of cogeneration plant, a gas turbine is used to generate electricity and the waste heat is used to produce steam, which is then injected into the reservoir.



In-situ burning is another form of TEOR, but instead of steam, some of the oil is burned to heat the surrounding oil. Occasionally, detergents are also used to decrease oil viscosity.



History Petroleum, in some form or other, is not a substance new in the world's history. More than four thousand years ago, according to Herodotus and confirmed by Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was employed in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon.



Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society.



The first oil wells were drilled in China in the 4th century or earlier. They had depths of up to meters and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles.



The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. In the 8th century, the streets of the newly constructed Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from easily accessible petroleum from natural fields in the region.



In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce naphtha. These fields were described by the geographer Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.



Timeline of Islamic science and technology. The modern history of petroleum began in, with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Atlantic Canada's Abraham Pineo Gesner. These discoveries rapidly spread around the world, and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oil fields at Baku in The battle of Stalingrad was fought over Baku now the capital of the Azerbaijan Republic.



Oil field in California, The first modern oil well was drilled in by Russian engineer F. Semyonov, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku. The American petroleum industry began with Edwin Drake's discovery of oil in, near Titusville, Pennsylvania; like the Chinese, Drake had been boring for salt.



The industry grew slowly in the s, driven by the demand for kerosene and oil lamps. It became a major national concern in the early part of the 20th century; the introduction of the internal combustion engine provided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day.



Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly exhausted, leading to "oil booms" in Texas, Oklahoma, and California. By, significant oil fields had been discovered in Canada specifically, in the province of Alberta, the Dutch East Indies, in Sumatra, Persia, in Masjed Soleiman, Peru, Venezuela, and Mexico, and were being developed at an industrial level.



Even until the mids, coal was still the world's foremost fuel, but oil quickly took over. Following the energy crisis and the energy crisis, there was significant media coverage of oil supply levels.



This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that will eventually run out, at least as an economically viable energy source. At the time, the most common and popular predictions were always quite dire, and when they did not come true, many dismissed all such discussion.





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