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Faced with such a prospect, he decided it was far wiser to be a friend of Sri Vijaya than to be the next target for subjugation so he agreed to enter into a formal alliance, pledging himself and his forces to the service of the Great King of Sri Vijaya and acknowledging the formal overlordship of Nyalatengorak. However, it is often at the discretion of each nation whether to co-operate or participate, if a nation does agree to participate in activities of the supranational bodies and accept decisions, the nation is giving up its sovereign authority and thereby allocating power to these bodies.



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They, under the able leadership of Su Sung, were to reinstute Wang Anshi's reforms and put an end to the policy of inactivity and grovelling appeasement of which Ch'in Kuei had been the embodiment. The Salendra Kingdom of Java. In the comfort of his palace, the Son of Heaven passed his time with a serenity most can only dream of attaining - he spent his days practising his already excellent calligraphy and hunting out new items to add to his collection of objets d'arte. One plus one mobile price in india and features This includes risks from being hit by tear gas cartridges, which include severe bruising, loss of eyesight, skull fracture, skin exposure to CS may cause chemical burns or induce allergic contact dermatitis. They all meant nothing.



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Some experts argued the investment was worthwhile, pointing to the raid in May that killed Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad, others claimed that the emphasis on Special Operations precipitated a misconception that it was a substitute for prolonged conflict. A model MA1 pistol. Production of this model ceased inthe German vehicle was not widely exported, and the Mark 1 tag has commonly been applied, retrospectively, to the to British model.







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The court sentenced Sangare to five years in jail and a suspension of his civil rights while N'Guessan was handed 18 months but credited with time served and released. The adjustable iron sights consist of a rotating rear diopter drum, the MP5 has a hammer firing mechanism. The G36 has a layout and a modular component design. Ford Focus hatch first generation. Submachine gun — A submachine gun is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges. But, to invoke the jurisdiction in any case, all the parties have to accept the prospective judgment as binding. Rahamjit Sena, Raja of Assam.







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05.03.2018 - In a particularly bold move, His Imperial Majesty decreed that pensioned soldiers would receive grants of land in newly conquered regions. A court in Ivory Coast sentenced former first lady Simone Gbagbo on Tuesday to 20 years in prison for her role in a post-election crisis in which around 3, people were killed, her lawyer said. In due course, his pickets informed him that the place was almost defenceless so the Liao Emperor's young son, Yeliuy Dashi, tore off with a small force to conquer the place. Lately, increased military operations by Nigeria, Chad, Cameroun and Niger have apparently pushed back Boko Haram, with Nigerian forces recovering several towns held by the group. Its ammunition must be supplied from a box magazine. If they will not leave, I shall drive them out with the arrow and the sword. You would have me bleed China dry to fatten the barbarians, Councillor.









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15.03.2018 - Wherever he saw men looking shaky, he would ride up and shout hortations, reminding them that they were defenders of their Motherland and that, if China 's honour demanded the sacrifice of their lives, they ought to be proud to die. Special operations are conducted in a low-profile manner that aims to achieve the advantages of speed, surprise. Iceland ranks high in economic, political and social stability and equality, init was ranked as the 13th most-developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index. A specially modified Special Service Vehicle version is available from Ford Fleet for law enforcement agencies, fire departments.









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07.03.2018 - Along with a 10 percent stiffer bodyshell, according to Ford this offers a better ride, the same body styles as the Mk 1 Focus were offered, though the saloon did not appear until mid It is slotted between the traditional body-on-frame, full-size Ford Expedition and the mid-size CUV Ford Edge, although outwardly similar, the fifth generation Explorer, Ford Edge and Ford Escape do not share platforms. The G36 is a 5. The new offensive includes troops from Niger for the first time, in addition to Chadian forces that were already carrying out missions in Nigeria, Chadian Brig.











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Model numbers included in the series are the,,,, introduced in, all model s are based on the same basic concept designed by Carl Benson. A single large locking lug is used to secure the breech, the magazine tube is located below the barrel, and is screwed into the receiver.



The slide release is located to the rear of the trigger guard. Sights vary from model to model, from simple bead sight to a receiver mounted ghost ring or a base for a telescopic sight.



Most models come with the receiver drilled and tapped for the installation of a sight or a scope base. The factory scope base is attached to the barrel via a cantilever-type mount, intended for use in harsh and dirty conditions, such as waterfowl hunting or combat, the Model series is designed to be easy to clean and maintain.



All Model s feature interchangeable barrels, which may be removed without the use of tools, by loosening a screw on the end of the magazine tube, allowing the barrel to be removed. The Model s bolt locks into a recess located on the top of the barrel instead of the receiver itself.



The trigger housing and safety button are made of plastic to reduce cost, the trigger assembly, which includes the trigger, hammer, sear, and trigger body with guard, can be removed by pushing out one retaining pin and pulling downwards on the guard.



The elevator can be removed by putting the gun on safety and squeezing the sides together, the fore-end can then be moved to the rear, allowing the bolt and bolt carrier to drop out, and then the forend can be removed by moving it forward.



The cartridge stop and interrupter will then free, leaving just the ejector. The magazine spring and follower may be removed by unscrewing the tube from the receiver and this level of field stripping is sufficient to allow all components to be cleaned.



The name Model covers an entire family of pump shotguns designed to chamber 3-inch magnum shells, the standard model holds five 2. The Model is available in 12 gauge,20 gauge, a 16 gauge was offered at one time but has been discontinued.



The standard finish for the Model is an aluminum alloy receiver. Some models come with a matte black matte-anodized receiver, and a blued barrel. Some models are anodized to look parkerized, with parkerized barrels and this is also true of the series since an aluminum receiver cannot be parkerized.



Shotgun — Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5. A shotgun is generally a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled, preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were widely used by armies in the 18th century.



The direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was often used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use.



In the 19th century, however, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms. The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, since then, it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, and military applications.



The shot pellets from a spread upon leaving the barrel, and the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful primarily for hunting birds, however, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon.



Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are commonly owned civilian weapons in many countries, shotguns are also used for target shooting sports such as skeet, trap, and sporting clays.



These involve shooting clay disks, known as clay pigeons, thrown in various ways, shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from very small up to massive punt guns, and in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.



The common characteristics that make a unique center around the requirements of firing shot. These features are the typical of a shotgun shell, namely a relatively short, wide cartridge, with straight walls.



Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotgun shells, shotshells, the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel, another configuration is the rifled slug barrel.



The typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets, the spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim precisely as in the case of a single projectile.



The disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, which is why shotguns are used at short ranges, and typically against smaller targets.



Larger shot sizes, up to the case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, First, it has enormous stopping power at short range, more than nearly all handguns and many rifles.



The model garnered several awards in the Sport Touring category from various magazines, the North American models included both a non-ABS version with traditional blue anodized brake calipers and a new ABS version with silver calipers.



Other refinements included an upgrade to the rates, mm front brake discs. In, the U. Yamaha added adjustable vents to the FJR, allowing the rider to direct air closer to or away from the body, starting with the models Anti-Lock Brakes and a linked braking scheme Yamaha calls Unified Braking System became standard.



For, some minor changes were made to the ECU to deal with potential issues related to altitude changes under certain circumstances. As well Yamaha changed suppliers for the ABS system, further refinements in the throttle control were introduced with the model.



For the previously optional heated hand grips became standard, for the FJR received a substantial number of updates, becoming the Gen-III version. Bodywork is all new on the front half of the bike for better airflow and engine management.



Mechanically, the now has plated-on cylinder linings for better heat dissipation. In addition to that, the new ECU incorporates as standard has an integrated Traction Control System which can be disabled, in addition to new controls for D-Mode and cruise control, several controls are different.



The first generation was introduced at the North American International Auto Show and used the Volvo P2 platform shared with the first generation Volvo S80 and it was manufactured at Volvos Torslandaverken.



Volvo moved production equipment of the first generation to China and ended Swedish production at the end of, the XC90 was Volvos top-selling vehicle in the United States and also Volvos best selling model worldwide in with 85, cars sold.



In the end of, the second generation XC90 was introduced and it is based on a new global platform, called Scalable Product Architecture or SPA for short. In November, Volvo released an image showing the frontal styling of the production version.



Production began in August, after Volvos traditional mid-year shutdown, at its North American launch for the model year, the XC90 was presented with a choice of two trim levels, the 2.



A Yamaha V8 engine was added in and this 4. The ex-host of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson, has owned three of these vehicles, and claims they were designed by someone who mustve had children due to its practicality, the XC90 was updated for with a restyled front and rear and a revised interior.



The hp 3. In, all XC90 models received painted wheel arches, in addition, a new, larger, circular Volvo logo appeared on the front grille. Volvo V70 — The Volvo V70 is an executive car manufactured and marketed by Volvo Cars from to across three generations.



The name V70 combines the letter V, standing for versatility, the first generation debuted in November as the estate variant of the Volvo S Both cars were essentially redesigned Volvo s which had itself been available in saloon, the V70 was available as a front and all-wheel drive estate, the latter marketed as the V70 AWD.



The third generation was based on the Volvo P3 platform, sharing general styling and it has been marketed since as the V70 and the XC70, a crossover model. Production of the V70 ended on 25 April, the XC70 continued until May, the first generation V70 was an improved development on the basis of the Volvo estate.



Overall design became more rounded doing away with the s square edges, among the many changes were a completely revised front end, fully painted bumpers and side trim and clear indicator lenses all around.



Most of the interior was redesigned, with new seats, door panels, according to Volvo a total of changes were made. Trim levels varied for each market as did equipment levels of the most basic trims, in the United States, the badging denoted the engine variant and to some extent the equipment level, whereas in Europe engines and options could be chosen individually.



In all markets more powerful versions received better or upgraded standard equipment, the T5 and R were the series high-performance models. For a minor facelift was introduced, apart from very minor cosmetic changes like the square XC-style roof rails replacing the rounded version and a slightly changed logo for the front grill, it concentrated on the mechanicals.



Volvo introduced its second generation side airbag which was increased in volume to offer better protection, WHIPS was also introduced as part of the standard equipment. New engine management systems with drive-by-wire throttle replaced the mechanical throttle on turbo models, the ABS was upgraded from a three-channel to a four-channel system, while all-wheel drive models received thicker rear discs and redesigned rear calipers.



The 4-speed automatic transmissions were upgraded to adaptive shift logic, for the model year, a new 5-speed automatic transmission with adaptive shift logic was introduced.



It was only available on non turbo front-wheel drive models and the V70 R AWD, all 10V engines were dropped and replaced by detuned 20V versions. Drive-by-wire throttle was now also introduced for non turbo models, the standard V70 was available with a wide variety of engines, gearboxes and equipment.



Standard configuration was front-wheel drive, an all-wheel drive version badged as V70 AWD was available, for some markets Volvo offered a diesel version badged as V70 TDI. In countries with high taxes on cars with more than 2.



In the past the Sprinter has been sold under the Mercedes-Benz, Dodge, Freightliner, in the United States it is built from complete knock down kits by Freightliner.



They are now marketed by Mercedes-Benz. Rebadged and re-engined Sprinters are also sold by Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles as the Volkswagen LT, the first generation Sprinter was launched in Europe in to replace the famous but outdated Mercedes-Benz TN van dating from Units sold to the rest of North America were badged as Mercedes-Benz until when they received Dodge branding, units in the United States and Canada, but not in Mexico, could be purchased as a Dodge or Freightliner from Key individuals from DaimlerChrysler Commercial Vehicle Division and Freightliner Trucks were selected to spearhead the effort, nearly all of the original staff were retained, though the base of operations shifted from North Carolina to Auburn Hills, Michigan.



It was identical to the Freightliner Trucks version except for minor styling details, rather than redesign the aging Dodge Ram Van which had used the same basic body and layout since the s and was discontinued in, DaimlerChrysler chose to replace it with the Sprinter.



The cargo version of model is re-assembled at a plant in Ladson. Like its predecessor, the version is imported as a complete unit. The model of the first generation is still assembled by Iran Khodro Diesel and it is used as ambulance car.



In Asia and Australasia, it replaced the Ford Laser, in designing the Ford Focus, a group of young designers used whats called the Third Age Suit in order to simulate the physical limitations of an elderly person.



The suit, which restricts the movements, allowed for insights that were implemented into the cars design. Ford of Europe introduced the Focus in to the European market as a replacement for the Ford Escort.



The decision to name the new car the Ford Focus was made in early and this eleventh hour dispute was resolved, however, and the car was launched with the name Focus.



The Focus MK1 was awarded the European Car of the Year award, the Fusion name was eventually used on two different vehicle families - a utility version of the Fiesta in Europe, and on a mid-size sedan model in North America.



Ford of North America began marketing the Focus in September for the model year as a surprise Christmas present for Fords CEO Jacques Nasser, the car was launched as a three-door hatchback, four-door sedan and five-door wagon, a five-door hatchback debuted in In, Ford launched its highest performance version of the Focus and this original Focus RS was only available in Europe.



Ford was said not to concern about losing money on the Focus so the company could sell gas guzzlers for big profits. Many industry insiders also view cars like the Focus as compliance cars because of their role in helping to bring down the fleet average fuel economy to meet current fuel-economy standards.



The basic suspension design, which contributed much to the Mk 1s success, was carried over unchanged from its predecessor. Along with a 10 percent stiffer bodyshell, according to Ford this offers a better ride, the same body styles as the Mk 1 Focus were offered, though the saloon did not appear until mid The Focus Mk 4 is larger and considerably heavier than its predecessor, it has a 25 mm increase in wheelbase, as a result, the interior and boot space have increased.



New technologies include a KeyFree system, a windshield, adaptive front lighting, Bluetooth hands-free phones and voice control for audio, telephone. Stylistically, the Mk 2 features the design language found in the Mondeo.



Although still recognisable as a Focus, the new car uses styling features from the abandoned B-Proposal for the original Focus which never reached production, in, Ford released a MK. Ford Mondeo — The Ford Mondeo is a mid-size or large family car manufactured by Ford from onwards.



The name comes from Latin mundus, meaning world, the Mondeo was designed to be a world car, the North American models were marketed as the Ford Contour and Mercury Mystique until, and as the Ford Fusion from onwards.



The Mondeo competed in the British Touring Car Championship between and, the cars, prepared by former series champion Andy Rouse, did not enter the season until the 8th round at Pembrey in Wales.



Ford ran a team, called Ford Team Mondeo, for eight seasons. As mentioned above, Andy Rouse Engineering ran the cars from to, at which point West Surrey Racing ran the team from to In, the team expanded from two cars to three when drivers Alain Menu and Anthony Reid were joined by series champion Rickard Rydell, the team dominated the season, finishing 1—2—3 in the drivers standings and winning the manufacturers championship by a staggering points.



A complete overhaul of the BTCC following the season saw the supertouring regulations scrapped as the series moved towards less expensive, Ford withdrew from BTCC competition prior to The Touring Cars after their withdrawal went on sale to the public and are now in the hands of other drivers.



The Zetec engines are converted to run off a set up and the Mondeo bodyshell is fairly tough. Mondeos are proving more popular than the Sierra and Mk III Granada, in Argentina, the Mondeo is one of several cars to compete in the local Top Race racing category, its body handcrafted in reinforced fiberglass.



The Mondeo is so far the most successful car in the category, in, the Mondeo III bodystyle was approved and presented as an option within the category, however, the Mondeo II bodywork is still being used.



Currently, the Aston Martin Vulcan uses a redesigned and fine tuned v12 engine and it shows the durability and potential capabilities the Mondeo can achieve.



Introduced for the model year as the replacement for the Ford F-Series panel van, in addition to cargo van and passenger van body styles, the Ford E-Series has been produced as a cutaway van chassis and stripped chassis.



Based on the compact Ford Falcon automobile, the first Ford Econoline was introduced to the public on September 21, for the model year based on sketches that were dated The Ford models were sized to compete with the Chevrolet Greenbrier, Dodge A, and the Volkswagen Type 2, the Volkswagen van had made an impact on the marketplace, thus Dodge, Chevrolet and Ford responded with their own versions.



Originally offered as a van, a window van with or without seats with up to three rows of seating, offering a maximum eight-passenger capacity, and as a pickup truck. A lb counterweight was fitted over the wheels to balance the front-heavy vehicle.



The Econoline made Ford the first American manufacturer to offer a van series as it is now known, early models had a cu in I6 engine with a three-speed manual transmission.



Later models had cu in or cu in I6 engines with a manual or an automatic transmission. Ford had projections for building more Econoline pickups than vans, but buyers preferred conventional body design and these closed van body versions were popular as service vehicles, such as with utilities like the Bell Telephone System.



In its first year,29, standard vans,6, custom Econoline buses,11, standard pickups, the Econoline was sold as a Mercury alongside the M-Series truck lineup.



For and, Lorain-built Econolines were exported to Canada, production numbers were low, for example, a total of 1, Mercury Econoline pickup trucks were built in Only the first generation of Econolines were sold under the Mercury badge in Canada, the next van sold by the division would be the Villager minivan.



Instead of calling it a or With the change of chassis and axle configurations, the Econoline gained a conventional hood for engine access, to aid in engine compartment ventilation, the model was given a conventional grille, styled similar to the F-Series.



Sold primarily as a van, the Transit is also built as a passenger van, minibus, cutaway van chassis. Over eight million Transit have been sold, making it the third best-selling van of all time and have been produced across four basic platform generations, while initially designed for European consumption, the Transit is now produced in Asia, North America, and Europe for worldwide buyers.



As of, the Transit is the van in the United States. The Transit drives Fords 57 percent share of the van market in the US. In the engine capacity was enlarged to 1. Production of this model ceased in, the German vehicle was not widely exported, and the Mark 1 tag has commonly been applied, retrospectively, to the to British model.



Fords own historical look back at Transit production, published for the launch of the model and this article attempts to make mention of all the common naming systems. Transits have also produced in Fords Genk factory in Belgium.



Transits were produced in Amsterdam for the market from the mids until the end of This factory had ample capacity, since the Ford Transcontinental produced there had little success, although the Transit sold well in the Netherlands, it was not enough to save the factory, which closed in December In a UK market segment then dominated by the Bedford CA, Fords Thames competitor, because of its restricted load area, Ford switched to a front-engined configuration, as did the s by Bedford with their well-regarded CA series vans.



Most of the Transits mechanical components were adapted from Fords car range of the time, another key to the Transits success was the sheer number of different body styles, panel vans in long and short wheelbase forms, pick-up truck, minibuses, crew-cabs to name but a few.



The engines used in the UK were the Essex V4 for the version in 1. By using relatively short V-4 engines Ford were able to minimise the additional length necessitated to place the engine ahead of the driver.



Another popular development under the bonnet was the equipping of the van with an alternator at time when the UK market competitors expected buyers to be content with a dynamo, a 43 bhp diesel engine sourced from Perkins was also offered.



As this engine was too long to fit under the Transits stubby nose, the underpowered Perkins proved unpopular, and was replaced by Fords own York unit in Ford Explorer — The Ford Explorer is a full-size sport utility vehicle produced by the American manufacturer Ford since, based since on a crossover platform.



The Ford Explorer became one of the most popular sport utility vehicles on the road, the model years through were traditional body-on-frame, mid-size SUVs. It is slotted between the traditional body-on-frame, full-size Ford Expedition and the mid-size CUV Ford Edge, although outwardly similar, the fifth generation Explorer, Ford Edge and Ford Escape do not share platforms.



The fifth generation Explorer does, however, share platforms with the Ford Flex, the original Explorer has also been involved in controversy, after a spate of fatal rollover accidents in the s involving Explorers fitted with Firestone tires.



Both two-door Explorer Sport and four-door models of Explorer have been sold, part-time four-wheel drive is an available option, and since this has been a shift on the fly system with full protection against being engaged at high speed.



A specially modified Special Service Vehicle version is available from Ford Fleet for law enforcement agencies, fire departments. Explorer was also the name of a package offered on the Ford F-Series trucks from to First generation Explorers were equipped with the then new hp 4.



Like the Bronco II it replaced, it was an SUV derivative of the Ranger pickup, like its direct competitor, the Chevrolet S Blazer, Explorers were available in both 3-door and 5-door body styles and with either rear-wheel drive or four-wheel drive.



The four-wheel drive versions were equipped with a Borg Warner 13—54 part-time four-wheel drive transfer case, the 13—54 was available with either Touch Drive electronic push-button shifting or manual lever-operated shifting.



Both were shift-on-the-fly designs that allowed the SUVs to be shifted from two-wheel drive to four-high at any speed, all Explorers were equipped with the Ford 8.



For the model year, engine output was increased by 5 hp for a total of hp. The Limited edition, added for the model year, was only in the 5-door body style and was positioned at the top of the lineup above the Eddie Bauer edition.



The grill and headlight trims on the Limited edition were paint-matched to the body color, similar to the 5-door Ford Explorer, the 3-door Explorer Sport model came in both rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive variants.



The A4LD was also known to suffer premature failure of the gear when used to frequently tow or haul heavy loads. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 October Ministry of the Interior.



The National Commissioner of the Police. Archived from the original PDF on 30 October Archived from the original PDF on 8 January A Historic Sketch, p. Retrieved 5 September A short introduction" PDF.



Retrieved 4 December Ministry of the Interior in Icelandic. Law enforcement in Iceland. Air Policing Crisis Response Unit. Law enforcement in Europe. Police forces by country.



Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Retrieved from " https: Articles containing Icelandic-language text Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows Pages using infobox law enforcement with automatic label pluralization Interlanguage link template link number All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October S, a federal police agency is a federal LEA which also has the typical police responsibilities of social order and public safety as well as federal law enforcement responsibilities 2.



Some members chose to join another new left party instead, the Left-Green Movement, after the PPs loss in the elections its longstanding alliance with the IP ended despite still being able to form a majority 4.



For example, military organizations may have military police, outline of law enforcement — structured list of topics related to law enforcement, organized by subject area Criminal law Biosecurity Commons 7.



The portion of the continental shelf beyond the nautical mile limit is known as the extended continental shelf 8. At a national level, the rules still determine jurisdiction over persons who are not domiciled or habitually resident in the European Union or the Lugano area 9.



Southwest Iceland travel guide from Wikivoyage The term holy water sprinkler is also used to describe a type of military flail and it was the favored weapon of King John of Bohemia, who was blind, and used to simply lay about himself on all sides The European and Japanese empires were shattered and Communist parties played a role in many independence movements In some countries, another common substance is mace, the self-defense weapon form of mace is based on pepper spray, and comes in small spray cans, and versions including CS are manufactured for police use Many modern hand-carried ballistic shields provide clear armored viewing visors, lighting systems, kickstands, carrying straps, other designs are more basic and provide only a simple armor panel bolted onto a handle This rigid control is attached to a piece within the cocking lever housing called the cocking lever support The Beretta has two triggers, the front for semi-auto and rear for full-auto, most models use standard wooden stocks, although some models were fitted with an MP style under-folding stock and are commonly mistaken for the German SMG The G36 employs a free-floating barrel, the barrel is fastened to the receiver with a special nut, which can be removed with a wrench By the end of World War II snipers were reported to provide reasonable accuracy over m with anything over this range being unpredictable Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province By avoiding multiple chambers—which need to be individually reloaded—semi-automatic pistols delivered faster rates of fire, an example of a modern blow back action semi-automatic pistol is the HK VP70 Some models are anodized to look parkerized, with parkerized barrels and this is also true of the series since an aluminum receiver cannot be parkerized Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, First, it has enormous stopping power at short range, more than nearly all handguns and many rifles In addition to that, the new ECU incorporates as standard has an integrated Traction Control System which can be disabled, in addition to new controls for D-Mode and cruise control, several controls are different With the change of chassis and axle configurations, the Econoline gained a conventional hood for engine access, to aid in engine compartment ventilation, the model was given a conventional grille, styled similar to the F-Series Iceland [videos] Iceland listen ; Icelandic: Norsemen landing in Iceland — a 19th-century depiction by Oscar Wergeland.



A map of Iceland published in the early 17th century. The Icelandic Coast Guard Icelandic: From left to right: Captain of Thor Cdr. Tear gas in use in France in Exploded tear gas canister on the fly.



Numerous tear gas shells used in Venezuela in An medic tending to an opposition protester during the Venezuelan protests. Germany listen ; German: The Nebra sky disk, c.



Martin Luther — initiated the Protestant Reformation. Foundation of the German Empire in Versailles, Bismarck is at the centre in a white uniform. MP5A3 with a retractable stock. A view through the weapon's aperture sight.



A submachine gun SMG is a magazine-fed, fully automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges. Thompson holding a Thompson M Artillery Luger P08 pistol with snail-drum magazine and removable stock.



The Bergmann MP 18 was the world's first practical submachine gun. The G36 is a 5. German Bundeswehr land force soldiers deployed with G36s. A German infantryman stands at the ready with his G36 during a practice exercise with US troops.



G36K Carbine with two G36 magazines clipped together jungle style. An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.



In the comfort of his palace, the Son of Heaven passed his time with a serenity most can only dream of attaining - he spent his days practising his already excellent calligraphy and hunting out new items to add to his collection of objets d'arte.



Beneath so calm and civilised a facade, a philosophical struggle for the soul of China was taking place. Hui Tsung, who, whatever his many artistic and scholarly talents, was no soldier, appointed the young but respected Yue Fei as General of the Armies.



Yue was one of those who had long railed against the Neo-Confucianist policies espoused by Ch'in Kuei and others of that ilk. Where Ch'in called for appeasement of the Khitan tribes, Yue called for war to restore the Motherland's glory and reclaim her ancient lands now languishing beneath the Juchen yoke.



That appointment, in itself, was not of fatal significance for General Yue's influence at court was limited. More important and more worrying for the Neo-Confucianists was the fact that His Majesty appeared to fall beneath the spell of Su Sung, the Minister of Personnel and Imperial Tutor famed throughout the empire for his fantastic astronomical tower clock; he was widely held to be the champion of the reforms of Wang Anshi and, thus, the sworn enemy of the Neo-Confucianists.



The pacifistic Neo-Confucianist courtiers worried that the increased favour shown to Su Sung by the Emperor might easily upset their careful arrangement with the barbarians and they didn't have to wait very long to see the fruits of Su Sung's influence In mid-January of, as the officials of the Imperial Treasury were scurrying around and working as hard as they might to organise the coming year's expenditure, His Majesty, the Son of Heaven, issued a decree that henceforth no tribute would be sent to Liao or Hsi Hsia - instead, vast amounts of money were spent on the military to improve pay, food, equipment and even the quarters of the soldiers.



As soon as they heard, a coterie of ministers flocked to the palace where they found Hui Tsung quietly painting a picture of some finches truly, the Emperor was never happier than when indulging his art.



By and by, the Emperor paused from his pursuit of the aesthetic and allowed the officials to interrupt his peace. These," he said, indicating the ones he had been using, "are terrible.



They are liable to see the refusal to pay tribute as a provocation. Let the barbarians leave Lu'an, let those damnable Tibetan Tanguts depart Huang, let them go where they belong - beyond the Great Wall and out of China.



Then, if it pleases me, I shall contemplate whether these wretches warrant my generosity. If they will not leave, I shall drive them out with the arrow and the sword.



But make no mistake - there shall not be one more brass coin in tribute to these dogs. Shall a man returning to his home and finding an intruder living in his house then be expected to pay rent to the intruder?



Is this not what is happening here in our own country? We have not the strength to defend ourselves let alone drive them back! Our wisdom, as a civilised people, lies in recognising that we cannot defeat the foe with the arrow and the sword, indeed I might say that we should not defeat them by war, yet we can and should conquer them with our riches and our intelligence.



Hui Tsung inclined his head and said, simply: And why should our wealth, my wealth, go to line the pockets of barbarians when I could as easily raise an army, a fine army of bold men, who will drive the foreigners out of China?



You would have me bleed China dry to fatten the barbarians, Councillor. That is the diamond truth shining at the heart of this policy of appeasement. Through tribute, we become weak and they become strong.



We ought to use our finesse, our sophistication, our superiority to keep our foes in their place. By engaging in sordid war, we sink to the barbarians' level and become no better than they. A eunuch scampered back in bearing brushes.



His Majesty accepted them and examined them carefully. Take the other ones away," he said to the eunuch then turned to Ch'in " Loyal Councillor, do you consider war for the defence of the Empire to be 'sordid'?



I lament that my foolishness and gauche inarticulateness are as great as Your Majesty's wisdom. I merely mean that soldiering is not a profession, if I may call it that, to which we, as civilised people, should sink.



Our strength is in our coffers. It is to be lamented that this has escaped the attention of so many people heretofore. In our eagerness to buy the love of our blood enemies, we have let our Imperial Army lapse into a pitiable state but no more.



We shall raise new armies, Councillor Ch'in, and we shall conscript only the finest young men that they may bring great honour to the name of China. After all, is it not said 'as good iron is not used to make nails so good men are not used to make soldiers'?



Say, rather, 'poor iron is not used to make swords; poor men are not used to make soldiers'. Let no-one throughout this wide empire of mine ever say the words you have just spoken, Ch'in Kuei.



Let the stamp of shame be removed from soldiering that all may recognise that the greatest good and most honourable path for any Chinese is to defend the soil of the Motherland against the jackals who prowl around us, jealous and avaricious.



As our ancestors built a Great Wall to defend us, let us build a great army and once more know what security means. Mark you, Councillor, that had we kept our armies strong in generations gone by, we would not now be in this pickle with Khitan tribesmen squatting on Chinese land.



You spoke of nails. I say that soldiers are the nails with which I shall rebuild China 's power and glory. Ch'in was suitably abashed: May I be forgiven for my impudence and stupidity. Might I suggest, though, if new forces are to be conscripted, that the soldiers be branded on their faces that they may be marked out amongst the people His Imperial Majesty cast a withering look.



It was always the same with Neo-Confucianists - no matter how hard one reasoned with them, they were also too caught up in their dogma to realise to see what lay before them.



And then remove the loyal Councillor's head. The great philosophical debate had ended with victory for the Reformist movement. They, under the able leadership of Su Sung, were to reinstute Wang Anshi's reforms and put an end to the policy of inactivity and grovelling appeasement of which Ch'in Kuei had been the embodiment.



Soon news drifted to Kaifeng of Liao mobilisation. This had hardly been a surprise and, under General Yue's watchful eye, dozens of long-abandoned forts and strongholds around Hopei and Bao Ding were repaired and brought back into active use.



Too, thousand upon thousand of new soldiers were conscripted; though these new soldiers were neither well-trained nor of particularly high morale, they represented a departure for Sung China - a move towards an active defence instead of supine acceptance of Khitan domination.



During the raising of the new troops, His Majesty's agents commissioned some officers of common birth - plain and poor men who showed promise. This shocked many at Court but the overarching policy of the Empire was to do whatever was necessary for China 's defence - if these peasant-bred wretches had the brains and courage to make good officers, let them be commissioned and lead the regiments forward against the enemy.



It remained to be seen whether the policy would be continued and extended after China was secure once more from the grasp of her foes. Many believed it would and that the revitalisation of China 's army, bureaucracy and economy, under the principles laid down by Wang Anshi, had only just begun.



In a particularly bold move, His Imperial Majesty decreed that pensioned soldiers would receive grants of land in newly conquered regions. Not only was the Empire now recognising and repaying the importance of her army but the Emperor obviously envisioned that the Empire would be expanding.



Truly, this was an exciting time to live in China The Liao Empire of the Juchen. The Liao were a powerful people. Only a fool could fail to see that. Assuredly, their land was poor and their cultural achievements were as nothing in comparison to those of the Chinese but, still, they were strong, their warriors powerful, their cavalry widely held to be invincible T'would be a fool who'd provoke these Khitan tribesmen to war especially since their steppe primitivism was now overlaid by a patina of Chinese ingenuity and technical savvy.



It was in tacit recognition of this that the Emperors of the Middle Kingdom had long paid tribute to the Juchen tribesmen but now, if the stories were to be believed, the Sung would no longer send their proper tribute, would no longer pay the Liao not to attack.



Tian-zo and his chief men didn't put much store by this when first the rumour surfaced - stories, rumours, exaggerations They all meant nothing. The Sung would send the tribute north and the warriors of Liao would leave China in peace.



Tian-zo knew this with as much certainty as he knew that the sun would rise in the morning. The Chinese were weak. Their days of glory were gone. Their armies were pitiful.



They were not fierce as were the Liao. These were the incontrovertible facts and so the Sung would pay a tribute which the Liao would accept and all would be well for both sides.



And then, one day, arrived a messenger from the Sung Court at Kaifeng Yeliuy Tian-zo raged and railed against the perfidious Sung, these soft city-dwelling weaklings. In a display of arrogance beyond reason, the dogs not only refused to pay their rightful tribute but actually demanded the surrender of Lu'an and the withdrawal the Liao beyond the Great Wall.



Well, they would pay and it would be a dear price. From the distant corners of the steppe, boys as young as twelve years were called to fight in the coming campaign alongside their fathers, brothers and grandfathers.



In Lu'an, all engineers, artisans and artificers whose skills might be deemed useful to the war effort were dragged from their homes and forced to march behind the Khitan horsemen. Contemptible and cowardly though the steppe lords judged them to be, their knowledge of siegework would surely be useful when the Liao army stood before the walls of Kaifeng March of saw the Liao Emperor, Khan Yeliuy Tian-zo, march south more than 10, horsemen of various types, a siege corps numbering around 5, men and 7, mixed footmen, mostly Chinese conscripts.



Too, a strong contingent of many thousands of horsemen had been provided by the steppe nomads. The Great Manchurian War. No opposition was found so, at the order of Tian-zo, a few Han notables, who had either not been able to flee in time or had purposely chosen to remain, were seized by the invaders.



Instead of harming them, the Liao Emperor ordered them to form a provincial administration under the auspices of the Liao Empire. The locals saw which way the wind was blowing and acceded to the wishes of their new master.



With this done, the Liao marched southwest along the great river's banks into Hopei The General had only just arrived in the region to assume command of the garrison of Chen-Ting-Fu which numbered perhaps 9, men, all infantry with a few artificers thrown in for good measure.



Realising that Bao Ding was of little import when compared to Hopei and the capital, which were now under threat of imminent barbarian attack, Di Qing struck out southwards to bolster the defences of Kaifeng.



He arrived before the end of May. Liao outriders began to appear in eastern Hopei at the beginning of June. Sung cavalry attached to General Yue Fei's army tried to engage these interlopers but the steppe horsemen were too fast.



The Liao reconnoitrings revealed that the Sung were well dug in and, worse yet, Hopei was littered with castles, strongholds, watchtowers and fortifications of all kinds. Tian-zo consulted with his chiefs and advisors before deciding to push on - the Liao were strong and would conquer; the Sung were weak and would perish.



The equation was as simple as that and no fort, no castle, no wall would ever change it. Yue Fei felt precisely the opposite - his forces were weak and could not stand against the massed Khitan force in a pitched battle but the region's forts and earthworks would bleed the invader dry.



Of that Yue was certain. The first blood was shed in Hopei. Tian-zo passed command of the infantry and the corps of engineers to one of his councillors, the ever-proficient Boon Min, and set him the task of neutralising the Sung fortifications one-by-one whilst Tian-zo himself would take the cavalry and lure out the enemy's field army.



As the month rolled by, the Sung forts did begin to fall but it was at a high cost in lives and the work proceeded slowly for the Sung mastery of engineering was impressive and the Liao had to rely on main force to overrun the defences.



With the work of reducing the region's many forts now engaged upon, Tian-zo and the Liao mounted forces sought out the Sung army in order to bring them to battle. Yue Fei, however, had massed the Imperial Army, which numbered almost 25, men, behind a series of skillfully-devised earthworks strung out around the vicinity of the capital.



Occasional cavarly skirmishes took place as Yue sent out mounted detachments to harass the enemy's conscripted Han infantry and Tian-zo moved, with typical alacrity, to oppose these raids for the Liao Emperor was aware that his footmen were not dependable and might desert or defect if pushed.



Other than that, the war in Hopei settled down into a stalemate with the Sung Imperial army sitting on the defensive and the Liao host slowly and not always successfully working on reducing the fortifications.



Towards the end of the month, spies reported to Yue Fei, one morning, that the greater part of the enemy army was deployed around a particularly troublesome group of hill forts perhaps fifty miles north of Kaifeng; so difficult was the action around these castles that the Liao had even had to dispatch some of their cavalry to support the attack.



This had left an interesting situation, so the spies said, for the Liao Emperor was encamped only a few miles distant from the Imperial Army and he had fewer than 5, men with him!



Yue held council with Di Qing and Minister Su Sung and, between them, they decided that the opportunity was too great to miss. Whilst the Sung did not want to face the Liao in open combat, Yue might expect to outnumber the foe by almost five Chinese men to every one Khitan warrior.



Victory might deliver Tian-zo into Sung hands, severing the snake's head. So it was that General Yue Fei ordered his army to make haste and march forth to do battle. In an effort to avoid alerting the enemy to his intentions, he sent only minimal reconnaissance forces ahead The spies had told Yue that the Liao Emperor was encamped beneath the shattered walls of a recently razed fort overlooking the wide Huang Ho river.



Sure enough, his parties of outriders reported that this was true - the enemy were exactly where the spies reported - but, to everyone's horror, there were twice as many Khitan warriors as the spies had said and they were ready for battle!



Four thousand sturdy Khitan warriors mounted on fierce chargers, three thousand horse archers still brushing the steppe dust from their boots, about a thousand very heavily armoured hosemen and, above all, the Liao Emperor's personal bodyguard - almost two thousand formidable light cavalry and a thousand horsemen armed and armoured more heavily than any the Sung had ever encountered.



Yue cursed his spies and wondered if this deception had been deliberate or if they were merely dolts There was no way to tell and it didn't really matter for the effect was the same - the Sung now had to face the Liao in open battle.



The Sung hurriedly deployed, standing on the defensive with their right flank resting on the river and all of their cavalry on the left to see off any Khitan attempt to outflank them.



In the early afternoon, the Liao assault began. The fight was brief and not particularly bloody. The Sung cavalrymen, perhaps 5, strong, fled the field at the approach of a single regiment of heavy Liao horsemen less than a fifth that number.



Nor did the infantry stand up very well. Some of the sturdier spearmen boldly made their stand against the enemy's charges but most were concerned with saving their own lives and, to Yue's chagrin, fled the field and made their way back to the fieldworks with all haste.



General Di Qing, although not the soundest of strategists, held his corps together impeccably. Wherever he saw men looking shaky, he would ride up and shout hortations, reminding them that they were defenders of their Motherland and that, if China 's honour demanded the sacrifice of their lives, they ought to be proud to die.



His words worked and the Liao were forced, instead of pursuing and annihilating the fleeing soldiers whom Yue was desperately trying to rally, to concentrate on destroying Di's forces.



By nightfall, the army which had marched out so gallantly to rout the Khitan horde was cowering within its fieldworks again. On a positive note, the cavalry who had fled the field had, eventually, found their courage again and rejoined Yue.



By midnight, even Di Qing had rejoined the main army with what remained of his detachment. The Sung officers estimated that they had lost 3, men, dead, wounded and captured, during the engagement.



Yue had to admit, although it was a defeat, it was far from the unmitigated disaster he had expected. But Tian-zo had not finished with him yet The following morning saw a determined Liao attack on the excellent Sung earthworks.



The attackers were outnumbered and, troublingly, consisted mainly of cavalry though perhaps 5, foot soldiers and a small number of artificers had been dragged from their work reducing the castles to assist in the assault.



The Liao managed to pierce the Sung breastworks in several places, clearing ditches and tearing down barricades, but the fighting was brutal and the attackers didn't have it all their own way - the Chinese had built up their earthworks carefully for many months and were fighting in their preferred element viz.



The ditches around the Sung position were soon filling up nicely with enemy dead, both Khitan and their Han conscript infantry. The breaches of the Sung perimeter were, of necessity, piecemeal so that, even where the Liao seemed to be enjoying success, they posed no real threat to the overall Sung hold on the position.



All the same, before evening fell, Yue beheld that his men were not going to hold out much longer. They had acquitted themselves admirably, given the invader a bloody nose and, most importantly, taught the barbarians that they could not attack the Sung with impunity but their temperament was shaky and Yue fully expected the rather unpredictable Sung army to run in the face of a renewed attack in spite of its successes.



In the darkest depths of the night, the Sung army abandoned its position, except for a skeleton rearguard under the indefatigable Di Qing, and withdrew to the defences of Kaifeng.



With morning came the barbarian attack, the destruction of most of the rearguard and the capture of the Sung fieldworks. Once more, Di Qing and a handful of braves escaped the enemy assault and reached Yue again.



This long period saw the Sung blockaded in their capital while the Liao worked on subduing the countryside no easy task for, despite the retreat of the main Sung army, the region's many castles remained.



Much Liao blood was spilt in reducing these outposts. Disease ran rife through both the Liao and the defenders of the castles. But in Kaifeng life went on pretty much as normal. Food was brought by boat and communications with the other parts of the Empire went on using the river.



The Emperor even found time to take excursions south of the Huang Ho before returning to Kaifeng which he evidently felt was as safe as ever it had been. Such was the case within Kaifeng.



Outside, the Liao spent many days in the wake of the Sung withdrawal contemplating the seemingless endless walls and approach forts around the city. At last, they decided that the city could not be taken and settled for slaughtering anyone foolish enough to venture outside.



The province of Hopei itself did not fare as well as Kaifeng. After months of effort, the last Sung outpost was smashed down by the Liao and the region was brought under the cruel yoke of the barbarian invader.



Tian-zo was far from happy. The losses his army had suffered on Sung walls had been far greater than he had envisioned and he resolved that never again would he test his men against such fortifications.



The Liao Emperor had planned, originally, on moving north into Bao Ding and reducing it but the steppe riders he had sent to reconnoitre had returned to him bearing news that the province was as heavily fortified as Hopei.



All hopes of attacking Bao Ding were given up and Tian-zo cast his greedy eyes southwestwards along the Huang Ho to the rich province Houma. In due course, his pickets informed him that the place was almost defenceless so the Liao Emperor's young son, Yeliuy Dashi, tore off with a small force to conquer the place.



By August, Houma too had fallen to the invader but, as in Hopei, the Liao had no stomach to test the walls of the riverport of Lo-Yang and allowed the city to stand unmolested.



Sept - April Very little took place during this period - the northern Sung provinces of Bao Ding, Yun and Shan'si and their great cities fell away from all but nominal Imperial control for the simple reason that they had no means of communication with the capital.



None of the regions repudiated the rule of His Imperial Majesty but they were now left to their own devices and there would likely be no end to this situation until the Khitan dogs were swept out of Hopei.



But the Sung were not the only ones to suffer troubles of this kind. April saw the beginning of a revolt in Lu'an. The provincials had long smarted under the yoke of barbarian rule but now they heard tell of terrible losses in the southern war - of thousands of Khitan slain by the glorious Yue Fei and his loyal comrade-in-arms Di Qing and, worse, of thousands of Lu'an men driven to their deaths by Juchen whips in battle against their fellow Han Chinese and the Son of Heaven.



Quite a few healthy men of fighting age remained in the region for the Liao had been slipshod in their conscription a sign of the speed with which it had been undertaken and, in any case, they had been most interested in drafting men whose skills might be utilised in sieges and had left many farmers and townsmen behind.



Now they were in arms against the barbarians and calling out for the Sung armies to march and liberate them! The revolt in Lu'an was at risk of spreading into neighbouring newly-conquered Yen.



The rebels might even make common cause with the Sung hold-outs in Bao Ding. They would have to be crushed without mercy. Tian-zo sent Boon Min off with a detachment of swift horsemen.



By June, they had arrived in Lu'an put down the revolt with surpassing brutality. The rebel "forces" lacked weapons and had no formal training too, as it turned out, there were less than a couple of thousand of them so they posed no real threat to the Liao warriors but, still, they were crushed and an example was made.



Any rebel Han captive not that many were actually taken prisoner was shot to death by Khitan archers in front of the assembled inhabitants of his village; directly afterwards, the home of the rebel would be burnt to the ground if the Liao felt generous, they would allow the wife and children of the rebel to leave the building first but they didn't always feel generous By late Summer, the people Lu'an were cowed once more and Boon Min could strike out for Hopei to rejoin the main army.



Early saw a sudden Khitan attack, brilliantly executed, on Shensi but, as ever, they failed to take the great walled city of Ch'ang - An. By Summer, Yeliuy Dashi, who had headed the expedition, was contemplating an attack along the south bank of the Huang Ho, into Shentung but, although it was a tempting target, he was forced to concede that Liao had overrun a great deal of territory already and there was no point in putting their successes at risk with further adventures.



From this point on, the war rather petered out - the Sung were secure behind their high walls and the Liao had the run of the countryside. Some, on either side, began to wonder if now was the time for negotiation Hui Tsung, imperturbable as always, made great strides with his calligraphy developing a style known as 'slender gold', a singularly elegant and visually pleasing script.



Despite the war raging along the great river, the Emperor did not allow such worldly concerns to distract him from what was truly important - his art and scholarship.



The Tangut Khanate of Hsi Hsia. With the ending of tribute from the south and the appearance of Liao warbands along the banks of the Huang Ho, Khan Tehu was contemplating what he ought to do. He was far from certain.



Like the Liao, his poor kingdom relied on the tribute extracted from the Sung. Too, he was certain that his army, bold cavalry supported by foot soldiers armed and trained after the Chinese fashion, would best the Sung armies in any fight.



Perhaps it was time for the Tanguts to march south and remind the Sung why they paid tribute in the first place In truth, Tehu was far from eager to embark on such a course for he was already confronted with an endless stream of troubles - the aggressive nobles were manouevring against him perhaps with the goal of overthrowing him; even his two brothers were, he knew, testing their support in the Empire and might at any time move against him.



Tehu's hold on Hsi Hsia was tenuous at best and he needed no foreign adventures which might provide his domestic foes with an opportunity to move against him.



Too, he doubted his ability to hold more Chinese land and foresaw that, were the Tanguts to move southwards, they would inevitably be drawn into conflict with Liao and that was a war Tehu Khan wanted to avoid at all costs for it would benefit none but the Sung.



The Tangut nobles screamed, though, that war must be pursued, that the Sung must be punished, their lands taken and, if the Liao wished to stand against Hsi Hsia in battle, let it be so - the Tanguts would vanquish them and the Sung alike.



But what Tehu wanted more than anything was peace, stability and a steady flow of Sung gold to his coffers. What to do, what to do To support the Liao in humbling the Sung?



No, the Liao would not share the spoils of war with the Tanguts. To make war against Liao and Sung alike? No, that was a conflict whose outcome could not be foreseen. To sit back and do nothing? No, for the winner of the current war would emerge stronger than before - Tehu shrank before the vision of a Liao Emperor enriched by the lands along the Huang Ho or, if anything could be worse, a resurgent and revanchist Sung flushed with victory after driving the Liao invaders beyond the Great Wall.



While such cares attended the Emperor of Hsi-Hsia, news arrived that the Uighurs were on the move. This, of course, might foreshadow anything - an attack on his own domains, a migration westwards, a move against the Liao Empire while it was distracted There was no way of telling whither they would head or what they would do but Tehu could offer their activity as an pretext for procrastinating over the Chinese war - even the most bellicose of nobles recognised that war could not be waged in China when the borders of Hsi-Hsia were not yet secure from Uighur raiders Before too long, it became apparent that the Uighurs were indeed riding for the borders of Hsi Hsi but not, as it turned out, to raid.



The Khaganate of the Uighurs. Temu-Lin, Khagan of the Uighurs. Life on the Asiatic steppe was hard. The winters would freeze a man to his bones and the summers scorched the earth 'til both man and beast might die for want of water.



Truly, it took a special kind of man to live out here where the uncrowded earth stretched out forever in all directions under the sky's blue dome. Only out here could a man be free; only here might a man live and ride and fight as befitted anyone worthy of the title "freeborn".



Yes, even the lowest steppe warrior was as an emperor when set against the dogs who sheltered in their little houses and spent days without end breaking their backs as they scraped in the dirt to raise a few worthless plants, never travelling, never taking up arms in blood feud against their neighbours, gaining no glory, singing no songs, never living!



Aye, life on the steppe was hard but it was real not like the half-blooded existence of the weakling Sung lords or the skinny peasants and fat merchants of China. And as for the Hsi Hsia and the Liao Temu-Lin, Khagan by grace of his prowess in battle, spat upon them for they both had fallen to the depths of iniquity.



Once they had been great tribes led by fierce and powerful warlords and they had done magnificent deeds, covered themselves and their banners with glory gained in a thousand battles.



Now, they had become as the Sung - they took Chinese titles and adopted Chinese manners and pretended they were the same as the Chinese. They had turned their back on the strength which the endless steppe gave to all those she nourished; they had embraced the weakness and cowardness of the Sung.



Now, they were without honour The flocks of the Uighurs were diminishing season by season. The water holes were even drying up. The climate had, for the past few years, worsened and the whole of the Uighur tribe could no longer support themselves from their ancient lands.



Something drastic would have to be done if the Uighurs were to overcome their current hardships so the Khagan turned to that most ancient of solutions - raid, war, conquest.



The Uighur tribes and their distant kin and allies were summoned to the yurt of the Khagan that they might take counsel together. By and by, after a week of deliberations, the Uighurs decided to strike out southwards into Hsi Hsia.



They would seek safe passage from the Tangut Emperor and head south into China. Loot, food, slaves would be dragged back to the steppes and, for a little while, starvation and the pressures of a cruel climate might be staved off.



Such was the Khagan's plan and it was endorsed by the tribal elders and allied leaders. The advent of this host put a holy terror into the hearts of the Tanguts who assumed the Uighurs came with hostile intent.



They were relieved but perplexed when they saw that the Uighurs were causing no trouble as they travelled through Tangut lands but, instead, journeyed quietly, shunning settlements and seeking no interaction with the locals.



The Uighurs rode with their banner of peace flapping overhead. In this way, they declared to all who saw them that they would do no harm to those through whose lands they travelled. News of the horde's coming reached Xinghou, the Tangut capital, and left all in a terrible quandry.



The arrival of this potentially hostile force could not be ignored and many clamoured for the army, which could perhaps equal the invader man for man, to be called out.



The three-judge bench headed by Japanese Judge Kuniko Ozaki said the ruling does not immediately end the mandate of Legal Representative Fergal Gaynor, who represents the victims of the post-election violence.



Early this week, the judges allowed Bensouda to appeal a decision not to sanction Kenya to the Assembly of States Parties for non-compliance. The judge became popular in Kenya after she presided over a three judge bench that confirmed charges against four Kenyans in January On Tuesday, six new judges were sworn in during the 13th Session of the Assembly of State Parties as judges of the ICC to serve for the next nine years.



A court in Ivory Coast sentenced former first lady Simone Gbagbo on Tuesday to 20 years in prison for her role in a post-election crisis in which around 3, people were killed, her lawyer said. Gbagbo, who is also wanted by the International Criminal Court ICC, was tried with 82 other allies of former president Laurent Gbagbo in a case that has reopened divisions in a nation still recovering from years of political turmoil and conflict.



General Bruno Dogbo Ble, who headed the elite republican guard, and former navy chief Admiral Vagba Faussignaux were also each jailed for 20 years, their lawyer said, while others including the ex-president's son Michel got shorter sentences.



Supporters of Laurent Gbagbo, whose refusal to acknowledge his defeat by Alassane Ouattara in elections in sparked a brief civil war, claimed the trial was politically motivated.



Simone Gbagbo's lawyer Rodrigue Dadje told Reuters she had been found guilty of crimes including disturbing the peace, organizing armed gangs and undermining state security. He said they would appeal against the verdict by the end of the week, adding: Her sentence, handed down in the early hours of Tuesday by a six-member jury after nine hours of deliberations, was longer than the 10 years requested by the state prosecutor.



Her civil rights will also be suspended for 10 years, Dadje said. Laurent Gbagbo is awaiting trial at the ICC accused of crimes against humanity. Ivory Coast refused to transfer Simone Gbagbo to The Hague to face similar charges, arguing that she could receive a fair trial in a domestic court.



An ICC spokesman said her conviction in Ivory Coast would not affect the case before the world court, which he said would continue to seek her extradition by Ouattara's government.



But, credited with time served, he was freed, as were nine ex-government ministers and four journalists who had been among dozens of Gbagbo's allies arrested after the violence in Simone Gbagbo said on Monday prosecutors had insulted and humiliated her while failing to prove her guilt.



I forgive because, if we don't forgive, this country will burn," she said. Though praised for his stewardship of Ivory Coast's post-war recovery, Ouattara has been accused by human rights groups of pursuing one-sided justice against his former rivals while ignoring abuses committed by his own supporters.



In the commercial capital Abidjan, reaction was divided, with some calling for the release of Simone Gbagbo and the other defendants as a gesture toward national reconciliation. The conviction of ex-president Laurent Gbagbo's allies for their role in the violence that followed the election in Ivory Coast has deepened a rift in his party that risks radicalizing hardliners ahead of polls this year in the world's top cocoa grower, analysts say.



The widening divisions between moderate and hardline factions of Gbagbo's Ivorian Popular Front FPI -- Ivory Coast's only major opposition party -- are likely to bolster incumbent President Alassane Ouattara's chances of reelection in the ballot expected in October.



However, the rift could also contribute to renewed instability in Ivory Coast, which, despite its recent history of political turmoil, is seen by investors as one of Africa's rising stars.



Verdicts were announced on Tuesday in the trial of 83 Gbagbo allies accused of offences committed during the brief civil war sparked by the ex-president's refusal to accept his defeat to Ouattara in a run-off in late Former first lady Simone Gbagbo and two senior military officers were jailed for 20 years for their role in the violence, in which around 3, people were killed.



After boycotting legislative and local elections since the crisis, N'Guessan, the party's president, has over the past year attempted to steer the FPI back to the political mainstream.



But he has faced resistance from hardliners led by Sangare, who refuse to participate in political dialogue and elections without Gbagbo -- who is awaiting trial by the International Criminal Court accused of crimes against humanity.



N'Guessan used the courts to successfully fight off an attempt by Sangare's faction late last year to put forward Gbagbo as their candidate in a party leadership challenge. The hardliners responded this month, calling a meeting of party members that suspended N'Guessan and named Sangare interim president.



Tuesday's verdict handed the two men vastly different punishments. The court sentenced Sangare to five years in jail and a suspension of his civil rights while N'Guessan was handed 18 months but credited with time served and released.



Sangare's backers said the verdict was manipulated by Ouattara, who is seeking to ensure peaceful elections to reassure investors but also needs a credible opposition to please donors. On Thursday N'Guessan filed a motion with a court in Abidjan to force the hardliners' to publicly retract their decision to suspend him.



At some point they could be forced to split and form another party," said Rinaldo Depagne, West African project director for the International Crisis Group.



While N'Guessan's participation as a candidate in the presidential polls would mark a step forward for Ivory Coast's languishing reconciliation efforts, some fear the potential reaction of hardliners left out of the process.



They are kind of a mystical sect, and it's very difficult to try to politically deal with these people, because they are no longer in politics," Depagne said. Sangare's backers would not be the first Gbagbo supporters to turn their backs on the political process.



In late, unidentified gunmen launched a series of nighttime attacks on army and police installations and infrastructure targets in Abidjan and along the country's borders.



Ouattara's government blamed Gbagbo's supporters, and a U. The impact of the attacks was minimal and the Ivorian security forces have been largely successful in shutting down the threat to Ouattara's administration.



Many senior Gbagbo government and military officials remain in exile in Ghana and sporadic attacks have continued along the border with Liberia, where thousands of pro-Gbagbo militia live as refugees.



A radicalized wing of the FPI operating outside the political sphere could give a strategy to destabilize the government a domestic foothold. Crippled by asset seizures and bank account freezes, the FPI, moderates and radicals alike, no longer have access to the financial means they once did.



Rumored hidden arms caches have failed to materialize despite countrywide searches. And in a nation weary of war, it is unclear how many could be moved to violence, even among Gbagbo's staunchest supporters.



The answer is, possibly. But are they able to actualize the threat? But enough to really disrupt? I don't think so. Ivory Coast's former first lady is appealing her conviction and a year sentence for her role in the West African country's post-election violence.



More than 3, people were killed after former President Laurent Gbagbo refused to accept his defeat in elections to Alassane Ouattara, who is now president. The former president awaits trial at the International Criminal Court in The Hague for crimes allegedly committed as he clung to power.



But Ivory Coast refused to surrender his wife to the court. Instead, she was tried in an Ivorian court for undermining state security. She had pleaded not guilty. Lawyer Rodrigue Dadje said Monday that the defense team is appealing last week's verdict and sentence.



According to Sangare, pro-Gbago youths and women had promised to ensure huge rallies in Abidjan in the coming days. The announcement comes at a time when the party is going through a major crisis that has seen the emergency of two camps, one linked to the ex-president and led by Sangare, and the other led by Pascal Affi Nguessan.



He was later transferred to the Hague where he is facing charges of crimes against humanity. President Idriss Deby of Chad said Wednesday he knew the hideout of Boko Haram leader, Abubakar Shekau, and vowed that the leader of the insurgent group will be killed if he fails to surrender.



Deby said at a press conference with his visiting Niger counterpart, news agency AFP reported. Shekau has remained in hiding since his group started out in targeting civilians, security officials, villages, schools, markets and places of worship.



He however appears infrequently in propaganda videos released by the sect. The Nigerian military has repeatedly, but incorrectly, claimed to have killed Mr.



Shekau, who is also wanted by the United States government. Lately, increased military operations by Nigeria, Chad, Cameroun and Niger have apparently pushed back Boko Haram, with Nigerian forces recovering several towns held by the group.



At the press conference on Wednesday, the Chadian leader said Mr. Shekau fled Dikwa after his troops chased out Boko Haram fighters on February Deby had been accused in the past of providing a safe haven for Boko Haram insurgents, and was purportedly the mediator in a phony ceasefire between the Nigerian government and the sect in Nigeria had refused to let Chadian troops continue with their campaign to recapture territories controlled by Boko Haram, Reuters reported yesterday.



In a span of six weeks the Chadian troops had been able to recapture Malam Fatori and Damasak on the border with Niger Republic and Gamboru and Ngala on the Cameroonian border.



They also sacked the insurgents from the ancient town of Dikwa, bringing them within 45 kilometres of Bama, Borno state's second largest town. But diplomats told Reuters it would be an embarrassment to President Goodluck Jonathan who is seeking re-election, for a smaller nation to tackle Nigeria's security problems.



Reuters said in their forward base in the town of Gamboru on the Nigeria-Cameroon border, Chadian soldiers displayed dozens of guns seized from Boko Haram and a burnt-out armoured vehicle painted with black and white Arabic script.



Nigeria's spokesman for operations in the northeast, Mike Omeri, said cooperation between Chadian and Nigerian forces had brought some major military adding that successes and any issues would be resolved via existing command structures.



But the Chadians say there have been no joint operations between the two forces. Chad's offer to join a Nigerian offensive to capture Baga, site of one of Boko Haram's worst atrocities in January, was rebuffed, Bermandoa said.



Officials from Chad, Niger and Cameroon say lack of cooperation from Nigeria has for months hampered efforts to put together a regional taskforce against Boko Haram. Chad was compelled to take unilateral action in January, under a deal that allows it to pursue terrorists into Nigeria, after Boko Haram violence started to choke off imports to its economy.



With Niger and Cameroon deploying thousands of troops on their borders, blocking escape routes for Boko Haram, the tide may be turning. Francois Conradie, analyst with South African-based NKC Research, told Reuters that if the current offensive could be sustained, Boko Haram could quickly be driven out of the remaining towns it holds.



Reuters says many in Nigeria ask why it took so long to act against Boko Haram which had killed thousands last year and kidnapped many more in its six-year campaign. Niger, Cameroon and Chad say Nigeria neglected the uprising in northeast, an opposition stronghold.



According to Reuters, in recent months, Muhammadu Buhari, a former military ruler who is running as the presidential candidate for the opposition All Progressives Congress APC, has gained popularity with voters desperate for tough policies both on corruption and Boko Haram.



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President Idriss Deby of Chad said Wednesday he knew the hideout of Boko Haram leader, Abubakar Shekau, and vowed that the leader of the insurgent group will be killed if he fails to surrender.



Deby said at a press conference with his visiting Niger counterpart, news agency AFP reported. Shekau has remained in hiding since his group started out in targeting civilians, security officials, villages, schools, markets and places of worship.



He however appears infrequently in propaganda videos released by the sect. The Nigerian military has repeatedly, but incorrectly, claimed to have killed Mr. Shekau, who is also wanted by the United States government.



Lately, increased military operations by Nigeria, Chad, Cameroun and Niger have apparently pushed back Boko Haram, with Nigerian forces recovering several towns held by the group.



At the press conference on Wednesday, the Chadian leader said Mr. Shekau fled Dikwa after his troops chased out Boko Haram fighters on February Deby had been accused in the past of providing a safe haven for Boko Haram insurgents, and was purportedly the mediator in a phony ceasefire between the Nigerian government and the sect in Nigeria had refused to let Chadian troops continue with their campaign to recapture territories controlled by Boko Haram, Reuters reported yesterday.



In a span of six weeks the Chadian troops had been able to recapture Malam Fatori and Damasak on the border with Niger Republic and Gamboru and Ngala on the Cameroonian border.



They also sacked the insurgents from the ancient town of Dikwa, bringing them within 45 kilometres of Bama, Borno state's second largest town. But diplomats told Reuters it would be an embarrassment to President Goodluck Jonathan who is seeking re-election, for a smaller nation to tackle Nigeria's security problems.



Reuters said in their forward base in the town of Gamboru on the Nigeria-Cameroon border, Chadian soldiers displayed dozens of guns seized from Boko Haram and a burnt-out armoured vehicle painted with black and white Arabic script.



Nigeria's spokesman for operations in the northeast, Mike Omeri, said cooperation between Chadian and Nigerian forces had brought some major military adding that successes and any issues would be resolved via existing command structures.



But the Chadians say there have been no joint operations between the two forces. Chad's offer to join a Nigerian offensive to capture Baga, site of one of Boko Haram's worst atrocities in January, was rebuffed, Bermandoa said.



Officials from Chad, Niger and Cameroon say lack of cooperation from Nigeria has for months hampered efforts to put together a regional taskforce against Boko Haram. Chad was compelled to take unilateral action in January, under a deal that allows it to pursue terrorists into Nigeria, after Boko Haram violence started to choke off imports to its economy.



With Niger and Cameroon deploying thousands of troops on their borders, blocking escape routes for Boko Haram, the tide may be turning. Francois Conradie, analyst with South African-based NKC Research, told Reuters that if the current offensive could be sustained, Boko Haram could quickly be driven out of the remaining towns it holds.



Reuters says many in Nigeria ask why it took so long to act against Boko Haram which had killed thousands last year and kidnapped many more in its six-year campaign. Niger, Cameroon and Chad say Nigeria neglected the uprising in northeast, an opposition stronghold.



According to Reuters, in recent months, Muhammadu Buhari, a former military ruler who is running as the presidential candidate for the opposition All Progressives Congress APC, has gained popularity with voters desperate for tough policies both on corruption and Boko Haram.



Ernst Hogendoorn, Crisis Group's Africa deputy programme director said the government appeared to have engineered the delay in the election in the hope the APC would slip up or the military could boost Jonathan electoral chances by defeating Boko Haram.



Clearly this improves Goodluck Jonathan's chances somewhat," said Hogendoorn. With Chad already squeezed by a slump in the price of oil, its main export, the government says it can only sustain the offensive in Nigeria for a short time, diplomats say.



Buhari, however, has already criticised Jonathan for relying on Chad to push back Boko Haram, saying his government would tackle the problem alone. Many in the military and the government are keen to limit foreign involvement on Nigerian soil, diplomats say.



When Chadian forces last month entered the town of Dikwa, they were told to leave by Nigeria's military, which said it was planning air strikes, Bermondoa said. After Nigeria's army retook Baga last month, Army Chief Lt General Kenneth Minimah said soldiers would recapture a handful of remaining towns before the elections, listing Dikwa as one of them.



Boko Haram was long regarded by neighbouring countries as an internal Nigerian problem, but attacks in Cameroon and Niger last year prompted the regional response. Since then, however, distrust and misunderstandings have stymied preparations for the force, due to take effect by the end of this month.



Nigeria initially sent low-level representatives to planning meetings, angering its allies. Cooperation between Cameroon and Nigeria has been dogged by long-running border tensions, while Niger accused Nigerian troops of cowardice.



Cameroon has stepped up its activities since July, when Boko Haram attacked Kolotafa, the hometown of its deputy prime minister, killing dozens and kidnapping his wife. The government has boosted its security forces in northern Cameroon from to around 7, However, Nouma said he had orders not to enter Nigeria, and Cameroon had denied Nigerian troops the right to pursue insurgents into Cameroon.



Along its km miles border with Nigeria, Cameroon has created 14 new bases, with heavy artillery batteries. It has also deployed surveillance drones, a senior intelligence officer said.



Another senior Cameroon military figure said they were attempting to choke off Boko Haram's revenues, including the trade in fuel with Cameroon, Chad and Niger. Soldiers from Chad and Niger launched the largest international push to defeat Nigeria's Islamic extremists whose war has spilled over into neighboring countries, officials and witnesses said Monday.



Chad's president has warned that the leader of Boko Haram must surrender or be killed. At least vehicles full of soldiers were spotted by residents crossing from Niger into Nigeria.



Loud detonations were soon heard, signaling heavy combat with Boko Haram, said Adam Boukarna, a resident of the border town of Bosso, Niger. The push marks a sharp escalation by African nations against Boko Haram nearly six years after the group began its insurrection.



Later neighboring countries agreed to increase the force to 8, The new offensive includes troops from Niger for the first time, in addition to Chadian forces that were already carrying out missions in Nigeria, Chadian Brig.



Zakaria Ngobongue said Monday. He described extremism as a "cancer" in the region that could not be defeated by any one country alone. Rodriguez, commander of the U.



Africa Command which sponsored the exercise, noted here on Monday that the Islamic insurgents have been operating not very far from this dusty capital: The group has carried out attacks on this year as close as about kilometers 90 miles away.



N'Djamena is about 30 kilometers 18 miles from the Nigerian border. Nigeria and its allies will defeat Boko Haram, said Mike Omeri, the Nigerian government spokesman on the insurgency.



Boko Haram's announcement over the weekend that it is affiliated to the Islamic State extremist group "is an act of desperation and comes at a time when Boko Haram is suffering heavy losses at the hands of the Nigerian Armed Forces and its regional partners," said Omeri.



The new offensive comes just weeks before Nigerians holds elections many fear will be marred by violence, including from Boko Haram. The March 28 election was already postponed from Feb.



Boko Haram's leader has threatened to violently disrupt the vote and militants have warned those in the northeast not to take part. Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan is running for re-election and facing great pressure to defeat a group that has killed thousands of civilians through suicide bombings targeting markets and schools.



Boko Haram wants Nigeria - Africa's most populous nation - turned into a hard-line Islamic state. Jonathan has reluctantly agreed to the foreign help from Nigeria's neighbors, a humiliation for the country that already had Africa's biggest military force but whose troops are underequipped and demoralized, with corrupt officers allegedly siphoning off equipment and money.



Some analysts think the goal of stabilizing the northeast before the election will be difficult to reach. Boko Haram is blamed for killing at least 10, people in the last year alone.



The violence in Nigeria has forced more than 1 million people to flee, including, to Niger, 40, to Cameroon and some 18, to Chad. Hadisa Musa, 50, managed to escape the Boko Haram attack on the Nigerian town of Doro but only after seeing her son shot to death.



She managed to spare his two children by hiding them underneath her on the ground. Her 6-year-old grandson and 9-year-old granddaughter now stay with her in a refugee tent in Chad, after the trio spent three nights and three days in a canoe crossing Lake Chad to safety.



Her eyes moisten as she recounts their voyage, and she then pulls the fabric of her abaya up around her face, mumbling her words through the fabric. As for the men who killed her son and scattered her family: Boko Haram began launching attacks across the border into Cameroon earlier this year.



Its fighters later struck at Niger, pounding the town of Diffa several days over the course of several days. And then on Feb. When the war came to those countries, the mostly impoverished Nigerians who had fled Boko Haram violence back home were traumatized as they came under attack once again.



Chad's leader has vowed that Boko Haram and its leader Abubakar Shekau will be defeated one way or another. And if he refuses to surrender he will face the same fate as the others who perished in.



Diplomats arrived in northern Mali's Kidal by helicopter on Tuesday for talks aimed at salvaging a peace process one day after rebels rejected a U. Rebels and northern community leaders said on Monday the a proposed deal, which took months to thrash out and had already been signed by the government based in the southern capital of Bamako, did not go far enough in meeting their demands for autonomy.



A collapse in peace talks could leave open the question of north Mali's political status indefinitely, a factor that may be exploited by Islamist militants active in the region. Hundreds of residents marched in the Tuareg stronghold on Tuesday carrying banners saying "We won't sign" and waving flags for a region they call Azawad, witnesses said.



They last rose up in and briefly allied themselves with Islamist militants to seize the desert north. A French-led military intervention scattered the Islamists but the political status of the north has remained unresolved.



MNLA, a group of secular Tuareg rebels in the wider Coordination of Azawad Movements CMA, said it rejected the proposal because it "did not take into account the legitimate aspirations of the people of Azawad".



In addition, the rifle has been licensed for production in Saudi Arabia. The G36 has a layout and a modular component design. Common to all variants of the G36 family are, the receiver and buttstock assembly, bolt carrier group with bolt, the receiver contains the barrel, carry handle with integrated sights, trigger group with pistol grip, handguard and magazine socket.



The G36 employs a free-floating barrel, the barrel is fastened to the receiver with a special nut, which can be removed with a wrench. Assault rifle — An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.



However, other sources dispute that Hitler had much to do with coining the new name besides signing the production order, the StG44 is generally considered the first selective fire military rifle to popularize the assault rifle concept.



Today, the assault rifle is used to define firearms sharing the same basic characteristics as the StG Army defines assault rifles as short, compact, in a strict definition, a firearm must have at least the following characteristics to be considered an assault rifle, It must be capable of selective fire.



It must have a cartridge, more power than a pistol. Its ammunition must be supplied from a box magazine. It must have a range of at least metres. Rifles that meet most of these criteria, but not all, are not assault rifles.



For example, Select-fire M2 Carbines are not assault rifles, their range is only yards. Select-fire rifles such as the FN FAL battle rifle are not assault rifles, semi-automatic-only rifles like variants of the Colt AR are not assault rifles, they do not have select-fire capabilities.



Semi-auto rifles with fixed magazines like the SKS are not assault rifles, selective fire rifles like the Fedorov Avtomat which in hindsight could be classified as prototypical assault rifles.



The result was the Sturmgewehr 44, which the Germans produced in large numbers and it fired a new and revolutionary intermediate powered cartridge, the 7. This new cartridge was developed by shortening the standard 7.



The Sturmgewehr 44 features an inexpensive, easy-to-make, stamped steel design and this weapon was the prototype of all successful automatic rifles. The barrel and overall length were shorter than a traditional rifle, on July 15,, a Sturmgewehr was demonstrated before the Peoples Commissariat of Arms of the USSR.



The Soviets soon developed the 7. The rifles are manufactured by the German firearms manufacturer Blaser, the LRS2 and Tactical 2 rifles are straight-pull bolt-action take down sniper rifles.



The straight-pull action design was introduced in the Blaser R93 hunting rifle line and these actions allows for faster follow-up shots compared to traditional turn bolt actions. The rifles are designed to fire small groups with match ammunition.



The LRS2 version, comes chambered in. The lug radial collett ensures the centering of the cartridge when fed into the chamber assisting in its accuracy, barrel changes by an experienced person can take place in under 60 seconds.



This allows the rifle to be carried in a compact fashion. The safety catch is mounted on the rear of the bolt and reveals a red dot when pushed forward. One feature of the bolt is that when unloaded and no magazine inserted, the 5 round magazines in.



Sniper rifle — A sniper rifle is a man-portable, high precision, shoulder-fired rifle, for military or law enforcement use, designed to ensure more accurate shooting at longer ranges than other small arms.



A typical sniper rifle is built for high levels of accuracy, fitted with a telescopic sight, the military role of a sniper dates back to the turn of the 18th century, but the true sniper rifle is a much more recent development.



Some sniper rifles are based on the designs of standard rifles, the Whitworth rifle was arguably the first long-range sniper rifle in the world. His rifle was far more accurate than the Pattern Enfield, at trials in, which tested the accuracy and range of both weapons, Whitworths design outperformed the Enfield at a rate of about three to one.



Also, the Whitworth rifle was able to hit the target at a range of 2, yards, during the Crimean War, the first optical sights were designed for fitting onto the rifles. Much of this work was the brainchild of Colonel D.



This allowed a marksman to more accurately observe and target objects at a distance than ever before. The telescopic sight, or scope, was fixed and could not be adjusted.



By the s, the perfection of breech loading magazine rifles led to sniper rifles having effective ranges of up to a mile away from its target. During the Boer War, the latest breech-loading rifled guns with magazine, the British were equipped with the Lee—Metford rifle, while the Boers had received the latest Mauser rifles from Germany.



In the open terrain of South Africa, the marksman was a component in battle. The Lovat Scouts was a British Army unit formed in that was renowned for the expert marksmanship, the men wore ghillie suits for camouflage and were expertly skilled in observation.



Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard said of them that men never lived. It was not until World War I that sniper rifles began to be used regularly in battle. In Germany, these trained snipers were given rifles with telescopic sights, german gunsmiths fitted the scope above the barrel for optimal accuracy.



During the War, the accuracy of the rifle was greatly improved. By the end of World War II snipers were reported to provide reasonable accuracy over m with anything over this range being unpredictable.



Austria — Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83, km2.



The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.



The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion.



In, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I.



This lasted until the end of World War II in, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation.



In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states.



The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since, joined the European Union in, Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in, and adopted the euro currency in Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.



Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.



Adopted in, it was ahead of its time with the use of synthetics, aside from being the Austrian Armys standard issue sniper rifle its also used by several law enforment organizations.



It is extremely accurate and several competitions have been won using an SSG with accuracy being sub 0. The bolt action uses rear-locking, rather than the more common front-locking lugs. This, and the fact that it is produced in the short action length limits the chambering to non-magnum calibres.



It is essentially a weapon, however with its caliber and inherent accuracy. An unusual feature is the standard rotary 5-round magazine, a round staggered box is available as an accessory.



Both are transparent-backed, immediately showing remaining capacity, in Steyr has decided to end production of the SSG Glock — It entered Austrian military and police service by after it was the top performer on an exhaustive series of reliability and safety tests.



Glocks are also popular firearms among civilians for recreational and competition shooting, home and self-defense, the companys founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with firearms design or manufacture at the time their first pistol, the Glock 17, was being prototyped.



Glock introduced ferritic nitrocarburizing into the industry as an anticorrosion surface treatment for metal gun parts. In, the Austrian military announced that it would seek tenders for a new, the Austrian Ministry of Defence formulated a list of 17 criteria for the new generation service pistol, The design was to be self loading.



The magazines were to have a capacity of eight rounds. It was to be possible to all actions one handed which are necessary to prepare the pistol for firing. The pistol was to be secure against accidental discharge from shock, strike.



Disassembly of the parts for maintenance and reassembling was to be possible without the use of any tools. Maintenance and cleaning of the pistol was to be accomplished without the use of tools, the pistols construction was not to exceed 58 individual parts.



Gauges, measurement tools, and precise testing devices were not to be necessary for the maintenance of the pistol. The manufacturer was to be required to provide the ministry of defence with a set of engineering drawings.



These were to be supplied all the relevant details for the production of the pistol. All components were to be interchangeable between pistols. No more than 20 malfunctions were to be permitted during the first 10, rounds fired, after firing 15, rounds of standard ammunition, the pistol was to be inspected for wear.



The pistol was to then be used to fire an overpressure test cartridge generating 5, bar, the critical components were to continue to function properly and be up to specifications, otherwise the pistol was to be disqualified.



When handled properly, under no circumstances was the user to be endangered by case ejection, the muzzle energy was to be at least Pistol — A pistol is a type of handgun.



In some usage, the term refers to a subset of handguns. In other usage, the term is interchangeable with handgun, some handgun experts and dictionaries make a technical distinction that views pistols as a subset of handguns, others use the terms interchangeably.



The English word was introduced in ca. The second suggestion is less likely, the use of the word as a designation of a gun is not documented before in Italy, long after it was used in French, the Czech word is well documented since the Hussite wars in s.



Other suggestions include from Middle High German pischulle or from Middle French pistole, also it is suggested that early pistols were carried by cavalry in holsters hung from the pommel of a horses saddle.



The most common types of pistol are the shot. Single shot handguns were mainly seen during the era of flintlock and musket weaponry where the pistol was loaded with a ball and fired by a flint striker.



However, as technology improved, so did the single shot pistol, new operating mechanisms were created, and due to this, they are still made today. It is the oldest type of pistol, and is used to hunt wild game.



Multi-barreled pistols were common during the time as single shot pistols. As designers looked for ways to increase fire rates, multiple barrels were added to all guns including pistols, one example of a multi-barreled pistol is the Ducks foot pistol, which generally had either four or eight barrels, although some 20th century models had three barrels.



Around, pistols such as the Jarre harmonica gun were produced that had a sliding magazine, the sliding magazine contained pinfire cartridges or speedloaders. The magazine needed to be moved manually in many designs, hence distinguishing them from semi-automatic pistols, with the development of the revolver in the 19th century, gunsmiths had finally achieved the goal of a practical capability for delivering multiple loads to one handgun barrel in quick succession.



The semi-automatic pistol was the step in the development of the pistol. By avoiding multiple chambers—which need to be individually reloaded—semi-automatic pistols delivered faster rates of fire, an example of a modern blow back action semi-automatic pistol is the HK VP United States — Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico.



The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15, years ago.



European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. On July 4,, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.



The current constitution was adopted in, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties.



During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean.



The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in left the United States as the sole superpower. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP.



Mossberg — Mossberg is a series of pump action shotguns manufactured by O. Model numbers included in the series are the,,,, introduced in, all model s are based on the same basic concept designed by Carl Benson.



A single large locking lug is used to secure the breech, the magazine tube is located below the barrel, and is screwed into the receiver. The slide release is located to the rear of the trigger guard.



Sights vary from model to model, from simple bead sight to a receiver mounted ghost ring or a base for a telescopic sight. Most models come with the receiver drilled and tapped for the installation of a sight or a scope base.



The factory scope base is attached to the barrel via a cantilever-type mount, intended for use in harsh and dirty conditions, such as waterfowl hunting or combat, the Model series is designed to be easy to clean and maintain.



All Model s feature interchangeable barrels, which may be removed without the use of tools, by loosening a screw on the end of the magazine tube, allowing the barrel to be removed.



The Model s bolt locks into a recess located on the top of the barrel instead of the receiver itself. The trigger housing and safety button are made of plastic to reduce cost, the trigger assembly, which includes the trigger, hammer, sear, and trigger body with guard, can be removed by pushing out one retaining pin and pulling downwards on the guard.



The elevator can be removed by putting the gun on safety and squeezing the sides together, the fore-end can then be moved to the rear, allowing the bolt and bolt carrier to drop out, and then the forend can be removed by moving it forward.



The cartridge stop and interrupter will then free, leaving just the ejector. The magazine spring and follower may be removed by unscrewing the tube from the receiver and this level of field stripping is sufficient to allow all components to be cleaned.



The name Model covers an entire family of pump shotguns designed to chamber 3-inch magnum shells, the standard model holds five 2. The Model is available in 12 gauge,20 gauge, a 16 gauge was offered at one time but has been discontinued.



The standard finish for the Model is an aluminum alloy receiver. Some models come with a matte black matte-anodized receiver, and a blued barrel. Some models are anodized to look parkerized, with parkerized barrels and this is also true of the series since an aluminum receiver cannot be parkerized.



Shotgun — Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5. A shotgun is generally a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled, preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were widely used by armies in the 18th century.



The direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was often used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use.



In the 19th century, however, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms. The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, since then, it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, and military applications.



The shot pellets from a spread upon leaving the barrel, and the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful primarily for hunting birds, however, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon.



Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are commonly owned civilian weapons in many countries, shotguns are also used for target shooting sports such as skeet, trap, and sporting clays.



These involve shooting clay disks, known as clay pigeons, thrown in various ways, shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from very small up to massive punt guns, and in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.



The common characteristics that make a unique center around the requirements of firing shot. These features are the typical of a shotgun shell, namely a relatively short, wide cartridge, with straight walls.



Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotgun shells, shotshells, the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel, another configuration is the rifled slug barrel.



The typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets, the spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim precisely as in the case of a single projectile.



The disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, which is why shotguns are used at short ranges, and typically against smaller targets.



Larger shot sizes, up to the case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, First, it has enormous stopping power at short range, more than nearly all handguns and many rifles.



The model garnered several awards in the Sport Touring category from various magazines, the North American models included both a non-ABS version with traditional blue anodized brake calipers and a new ABS version with silver calipers.



Other refinements included an upgrade to the rates, mm front brake discs. In, the U. Yamaha added adjustable vents to the FJR, allowing the rider to direct air closer to or away from the body, starting with the models Anti-Lock Brakes and a linked braking scheme Yamaha calls Unified Braking System became standard.



For, some minor changes were made to the ECU to deal with potential issues related to altitude changes under certain circumstances. As well Yamaha changed suppliers for the ABS system, further refinements in the throttle control were introduced with the model.



For the previously optional heated hand grips became standard, for the FJR received a substantial number of updates, becoming the Gen-III version. Bodywork is all new on the front half of the bike for better airflow and engine management.



Mechanically, the now has plated-on cylinder linings for better heat dissipation. In addition to that, the new ECU incorporates as standard has an integrated Traction Control System which can be disabled, in addition to new controls for D-Mode and cruise control, several controls are different.



The first generation was introduced at the North American International Auto Show and used the Volvo P2 platform shared with the first generation Volvo S80 and it was manufactured at Volvos Torslandaverken.



Volvo moved production equipment of the first generation to China and ended Swedish production at the end of, the XC90 was Volvos top-selling vehicle in the United States and also Volvos best selling model worldwide in with 85, cars sold.



In the end of, the second generation XC90 was introduced and it is based on a new global platform, called Scalable Product Architecture or SPA for short. In November, Volvo released an image showing the frontal styling of the production version.



Production began in August, after Volvos traditional mid-year shutdown, at its North American launch for the model year, the XC90 was presented with a choice of two trim levels, the 2.



A Yamaha V8 engine was added in and this 4. The ex-host of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson, has owned three of these vehicles, and claims they were designed by someone who mustve had children due to its practicality, the XC90 was updated for with a restyled front and rear and a revised interior.



The hp 3. In, all XC90 models received painted wheel arches, in addition, a new, larger, circular Volvo logo appeared on the front grille. Volvo V70 — The Volvo V70 is an executive car manufactured and marketed by Volvo Cars from to across three generations.



The name V70 combines the letter V, standing for versatility, the first generation debuted in November as the estate variant of the Volvo S Both cars were essentially redesigned Volvo s which had itself been available in saloon, the V70 was available as a front and all-wheel drive estate, the latter marketed as the V70 AWD.



The third generation was based on the Volvo P3 platform, sharing general styling and it has been marketed since as the V70 and the XC70, a crossover model. Production of the V70 ended on 25 April, the XC70 continued until May, the first generation V70 was an improved development on the basis of the Volvo estate.



Overall design became more rounded doing away with the s square edges, among the many changes were a completely revised front end, fully painted bumpers and side trim and clear indicator lenses all around.



Most of the interior was redesigned, with new seats, door panels, according to Volvo a total of changes were made. Trim levels varied for each market as did equipment levels of the most basic trims, in the United States, the badging denoted the engine variant and to some extent the equipment level, whereas in Europe engines and options could be chosen individually.



In all markets more powerful versions received better or upgraded standard equipment, the T5 and R were the series high-performance models. For a minor facelift was introduced, apart from very minor cosmetic changes like the square XC-style roof rails replacing the rounded version and a slightly changed logo for the front grill, it concentrated on the mechanicals.



Volvo introduced its second generation side airbag which was increased in volume to offer better protection, WHIPS was also introduced as part of the standard equipment. New engine management systems with drive-by-wire throttle replaced the mechanical throttle on turbo models, the ABS was upgraded from a three-channel to a four-channel system, while all-wheel drive models received thicker rear discs and redesigned rear calipers.



The 4-speed automatic transmissions were upgraded to adaptive shift logic, for the model year, a new 5-speed automatic transmission with adaptive shift logic was introduced. It was only available on non turbo front-wheel drive models and the V70 R AWD, all 10V engines were dropped and replaced by detuned 20V versions.



Drive-by-wire throttle was now also introduced for non turbo models, the standard V70 was available with a wide variety of engines, gearboxes and equipment. Standard configuration was front-wheel drive, an all-wheel drive version badged as V70 AWD was available, for some markets Volvo offered a diesel version badged as V70 TDI.



In countries with high taxes on cars with more than 2. In the past the Sprinter has been sold under the Mercedes-Benz, Dodge, Freightliner, in the United States it is built from complete knock down kits by Freightliner.



They are now marketed by Mercedes-Benz. Rebadged and re-engined Sprinters are also sold by Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles as the Volkswagen LT, the first generation Sprinter was launched in Europe in to replace the famous but outdated Mercedes-Benz TN van dating from Units sold to the rest of North America were badged as Mercedes-Benz until when they received Dodge branding, units in the United States and Canada, but not in Mexico, could be purchased as a Dodge or Freightliner from Key individuals from DaimlerChrysler Commercial Vehicle Division and Freightliner Trucks were selected to spearhead the effort, nearly all of the original staff were retained, though the base of operations shifted from North Carolina to Auburn Hills, Michigan.



It was identical to the Freightliner Trucks version except for minor styling details, rather than redesign the aging Dodge Ram Van which had used the same basic body and layout since the s and was discontinued in, DaimlerChrysler chose to replace it with the Sprinter.



The cargo version of model is re-assembled at a plant in Ladson. Like its predecessor, the version is imported as a complete unit. The model of the first generation is still assembled by Iran Khodro Diesel and it is used as ambulance car.



In Asia and Australasia, it replaced the Ford Laser, in designing the Ford Focus, a group of young designers used whats called the Third Age Suit in order to simulate the physical limitations of an elderly person.



The suit, which restricts the movements, allowed for insights that were implemented into the cars design. Ford of Europe introduced the Focus in to the European market as a replacement for the Ford Escort.



The decision to name the new car the Ford Focus was made in early and this eleventh hour dispute was resolved, however, and the car was launched with the name Focus.



The Focus MK1 was awarded the European Car of the Year award, the Fusion name was eventually used on two different vehicle families - a utility version of the Fiesta in Europe, and on a mid-size sedan model in North America.



Ford of North America began marketing the Focus in September for the model year as a surprise Christmas present for Fords CEO Jacques Nasser, the car was launched as a three-door hatchback, four-door sedan and five-door wagon, a five-door hatchback debuted in In, Ford launched its highest performance version of the Focus and this original Focus RS was only available in Europe.



Ford was said not to concern about losing money on the Focus so the company could sell gas guzzlers for big profits. Many industry insiders also view cars like the Focus as compliance cars because of their role in helping to bring down the fleet average fuel economy to meet current fuel-economy standards.



The basic suspension design, which contributed much to the Mk 1s success, was carried over unchanged from its predecessor. Along with a 10 percent stiffer bodyshell, according to Ford this offers a better ride, the same body styles as the Mk 1 Focus were offered, though the saloon did not appear until mid The Focus Mk 4 is larger and considerably heavier than its predecessor, it has a 25 mm increase in wheelbase, as a result, the interior and boot space have increased.



New technologies include a KeyFree system, a windshield, adaptive front lighting, Bluetooth hands-free phones and voice control for audio, telephone. Stylistically, the Mk 2 features the design language found in the Mondeo.



Although still recognisable as a Focus, the new car uses styling features from the abandoned B-Proposal for the original Focus which never reached production, in, Ford released a MK. Ford Mondeo — The Ford Mondeo is a mid-size or large family car manufactured by Ford from onwards.



The name comes from Latin mundus, meaning world, the Mondeo was designed to be a world car, the North American models were marketed as the Ford Contour and Mercury Mystique until, and as the Ford Fusion from onwards.



The Mondeo competed in the British Touring Car Championship between and, the cars, prepared by former series champion Andy Rouse, did not enter the season until the 8th round at Pembrey in Wales.



Ford ran a team, called Ford Team Mondeo, for eight seasons. As mentioned above, Andy Rouse Engineering ran the cars from to, at which point West Surrey Racing ran the team from to In, the team expanded from two cars to three when drivers Alain Menu and Anthony Reid were joined by series champion Rickard Rydell, the team dominated the season, finishing 1—2—3 in the drivers standings and winning the manufacturers championship by a staggering points.



A complete overhaul of the BTCC following the season saw the supertouring regulations scrapped as the series moved towards less expensive, Ford withdrew from BTCC competition prior to The Touring Cars after their withdrawal went on sale to the public and are now in the hands of other drivers.



The Zetec engines are converted to run off a set up and the Mondeo bodyshell is fairly tough. Mondeos are proving more popular than the Sierra and Mk III Granada, in Argentina, the Mondeo is one of several cars to compete in the local Top Race racing category, its body handcrafted in reinforced fiberglass.



The Mondeo is so far the most successful car in the category, in, the Mondeo III bodystyle was approved and presented as an option within the category, however, the Mondeo II bodywork is still being used.



Currently, the Aston Martin Vulcan uses a redesigned and fine tuned v12 engine and it shows the durability and potential capabilities the Mondeo can achieve. Introduced for the model year as the replacement for the Ford F-Series panel van, in addition to cargo van and passenger van body styles, the Ford E-Series has been produced as a cutaway van chassis and stripped chassis.



The Uighurs had been steadfast in their discipline - no farm had been raided, no flock stolen, no person slain. Whatever their goal, the Uighurs did not want to make an enemy of the Tanguts so why should the Tanguts make an enemy of the Uighurs?



Tehu was encouraged by this argument and opted to wait at his great capital, Xinghou, with his army close by just in case. By mid-summer of, the Uighurs arrived near Xinghou, peaceful enough but looking thoroughly bemused at the depths to which the once-proud steppe lords of the Tanguts had sunk - they dressed in silk, perfumed themselves and drank tea like the Sung; in fact, they only climbed on horses on the rare occasions when their steppe blood called them to hunt.



Tehu Khan, Emperor of Hsi Hsia, adorned in his richest robes and accompanied by several hundred finely-dressed and grim-visaged spearmen met with the fleabitten Khagan Temu-Lin of the Uighurs in a royal hunting ground a few miles distant from the walls of Xinghou.



The Khagan had eschewed all escort and had brought only his son, who went by name of Borat Bear-Killer on account of his favourite pastime viz. In his polite way, Tehu Khan enquired why the Uighurs had come here, so many leagues distant from their own lands Surely they had not come to do harm to Hsi Hsia?



Temu-Lin Khagan explained, bluntly, that his warriors were going on a raid, that times were hard in the north and the Uighurs would take food and booty from the Sung to see them through another few seasons; they meant no harm to the Tanguts but meant to pass through their lands one way or another.



The Tangut Emperor was most impressed by the Khagan's frankness but, more than anything, the sight of these tough steppe barbarians who feared nothing sparked an idea in Tehu's head Since the Tanguts worried that they could not match the power of their rivals to the south and east, might he, Tehu Khan, not harness the power of these wild barbarians by buying their loyalty?



As to freedom to move through my lands, it is granted. If you are intent on making war against the Sung, you may pass through my lands just as you please," said Tehu with his oiliest smile.



The Uighurs were glad to receive free passage but Temu-Lin was anxious at the prospect of travelling to a city - all those walls and doors closing in on a man, restricting him Truly, to live in a city must be like being buried alive, Temu-Lin reasoned.



But hospitality had been offered and Temu-Lin knew two things about this concept - first, to spurn a man's hospitality was an insult equivalent to defecating on the tombs of his ancestors; second, hospitality meant free food and drink.



So it was that the Khagan agreed to visit Xinghou and the palace of the Tangut Emperor The palace was a grand place to Uighur eyes and the hospitality of Hsi Hsia was lavish - food, drink, dancing girls were there for the delectation of the steppe lords.



Not all Tanguts, though, were pleased to see barbarians feted. Many Tangut lords had adopted the mores and prejudices of the sophisticated Chinese from whose culture they borrowed so heavily and forgot that the Tanguts, only a few generations ago, had been uncultured tribesmen like the Uighurs.



These lords muttered that, if their Emperor was going to allow the Uighurs safe passage, why did he not push them on toward their final goal instead of dragging them here to the city where they would pollute the whole place with their vile miasma?



At length, after many hours of feasting, Tehu Khan leant close to Temu-Lin, that he might not be overheard, and asked a question: You might find people nearer at hand who would provide all that you need in return for your services as warriors.



You need not fight for it in China. I will give it in return for certain tasks - simple tasks for men of your obvious prowess and courage. For example, have you met my brothers A mere week later, Tehu sent forth wagons to the camp of the Uighurs who, for all their talk of free passage, had made no attempt to leave the vicinity of Xinghou.



The contents of the wagons remained a secret to all but no sooner had the Khagan and his chief men set eyes upon them than a picked force of a thousand warriors, with Temu-Lin at their head, rode directly for the gates of Xinghou.



The Tangut Emperor had declared that the city was always to be open to the Uighurs whether they came bearing arms or not and they were many or few in number so the sentries nervously stood aside and let the cavalry ride through the gates, through the cobbled thoroughfares of the city and directly to a large mansion house set in its own broad gardens near the palace complex.



It was the home of the Tangut Emperor's younger brother. Within a quarter of an hour, the building was in flames and the Imperial Prince lay dead with a dozen steppe arrows in him.



The Khagan dragged the body behind his own horse and rode straight to the palace of Emperor Tehu Khan. Panic spread before him - soldiers made ready to barricade the palace against these treacherous barbarians and the Chief Minister of Hsi Hsia ran to his Emperor, abased himself before the Emperor's feet and shouted in a wavering voice: They have betrayed your trust!



And which brother did they kill? I told them to deal with both. So began the great purge. Before the sun set that day, both the Emperor's brothers were dead along with their families. Within a month, the Uighurs were riding from one end of the realm to the other at the Tangut Emperor's direction, slaying whomever he commanded.



Any noble whose loyalty was suspect received a visit from the Emperor's steppe hirelings. Elements of the army who were thought potentially rebellious were simply massacred.



For the first time in his reign, Tehu Khan felt secure. He had been very wise in acquiring a private army who would do his bidding so long as the money held out. And, to keep the Uighurs tied to his cause, he had even given his daughter to be the bride of Temu-Lin; he was considerably older than she no-one knew exactly how old the Khagan was because the steppe tribesmen didn't keep accurate count of their age, he was uncouth beyond all belief and he stank but what did the happiness of one girl matter when set against the security which, Tehu Khan believed, the marriage had bought?



The Uighurs had good cause to feel pleased too. Their position in Hsi Hsia was supreme - they virtually ruled the place; the Tangut nobles were either dead or too cowed to challenge them. Even the army of Hsi Hsia was, in no small part, dead, demobilised or deserting, their role in the Empire assumed by the Uighurs.



To keep the Uighurs paid and their families fed, the Tangut Emperor squeezed his subjects cruelly, often to the point of starving them, but any dissent was crushed beneath the boots of the steppe lords.



More and more Uighur noblemen came to take up residence in Hsi Hsia permanently; they contemned the softness of city-living but still enjoyed the pleasures of courtly life - plentiful food, endless drink and pliant slave girls.



Eventually, during the early months of, Tehu Khan decided that the time had come to join the war in the south. The Liao and Sung were both exhausted by war and would fall easily before the Hsi Hsian assault which would actually be an Uighur assault but we won't quibble about semantics So a council of war was called - the handful of Tangut officers still retained by the Emperor, some of Hsi Hsia's Chinese ministers and, most importantly, Temu-Lin and the chiefs of the Uighurs.



In this council, the Emperor of Hsi Hsia voiced his desire to make bloody war upon Sung and Liao alike and claim the rich regions along the Huang Ho for himself. To his utter bewilderment, there was little enthusiasm for the exercise not even from his war-loving Uighurs.



They felt that, having found an easy living as hired muscle for a quasi-Chinese king, they did not wish to throw it all away in some adventure down south. But it mattered not - Tehu Khan, Hsi Hsia Emperor of the Tanguts, had proclaimed that they would march to war within the month.



He had spoken and his will would be done. Or so he imagined. The Uighurs, though, had different ideas. During the first few years of their residence in Hsi Hsia, they had realised that the Tanguts did not truly rule this rich little land - the Tanguts issued orders but it was the Chinese administrators who kept the country ticking along.



Even Temu-Lin's teenaged bride had explained to him, one night, that the Emperor of the Tanguts would issue dikats and decrees but it was left to his ministers to find ways of executing them.



And so an idea had come to the mind of Temu-Lin - if the Hsi Hsia Tangut overlords were to disappear from the face of the earth, would not the kingdom remain in existence and run just as efficiently as before so long as the Chinese bureaucrats and ministers were left unmolested?



It seemed that it would. And if the Tanguts were replaced by the Uighurs, would that affect the ability of the administrators to run the land? It seemed that it would not On a light evening just after Midsummer, a party of a few dozen Uighur warriors entered the palace of the Tangut Emperor, strolling past the handful of Tangut guards without so much as a by-your-leave; this in itself was nothing unusual for the Uighurs generally behaved as though they owned the place.



The group made straight for the private chambers of Tehu Khan. An elderly chamberlain, with many a bow, politely asked the band to wait while he sought the Emperor's leave to admit them.



Their answer was the slash of an Uighur blade. A few handpicked Tangut soldiers had been retained by Tehu Khan as a sort of honour guard but they were caught unawares by such vicious treachery and, in seconds, they too were lying on the palace floor with their life's blood emptying from their bodies.



The Uighurs broke down the doors to the Inner Palace where all the closest members of the Imperial Family lived. For a full hour they wandered the many corridors and rooms killing any they met - the wives and concubines of Tehu Khan were slain, his two infant sons killed out of hand by the remorseless mercenaries their father had brought here, even slaves and servants were butchered.



Tehu, last Hsi Hsia Emperor of the Tanguts, died that evening, though the details were unclear, with all his servants and family save only the daughter whom he had given to the Uighur Khagan. In their assault, the Uighur murderers acted with a single-minded determination - they were not distracted by loot, though there was plenty in the Inner Palace which might be stolen, nor by the concubines who were remarkable for their physical beauty.



They had come with only a single mission - to kill the Tangut Emperor. Beyond that, they had no interest in anything. With their job completed and the floors of the Inner Palace wet with the blood of their victims, they left tipping over lamps and candles as they went to spread fire.



By dawn of the following day, that entire section of the palace complex was gone forever. It also became apparent that other Uighur bands had been at work slaying all the other Tangut nobles in the city and killing three-quarters of the remaining Tangut army.



As news of the massacres spread, most of Xinghou's inhabitants expected that the raiders would next turn their evil attention on them - surely these barbarians, finding themselves in sole possession of a defenceless city, would engage in massacre and rapine.



They were surprised, relieved and a little confused when no such massacre came. Instead, Uighur warriors stormed the rich mansion of the Chief Minister and dragged him to the Khagan's yurt outside the city walls.



There, he was thrown to his knees before Temu-Lin who said in his simple way: I shall rule here as Tehu Khan ruled. And so it was done Before long, a steady stream of Uighurs was migrating southwards and assuming complete control over Hsi Hsia.



The day-to-day running of the new Uighur Khaganate was taken over by the ex-Tangut ministers and the capital was effectively abandoned by the new Uighur nobles for Temu-Lin much preferred to rule from and hold court in a cluster of yurts in a royal hunting park a few miles distant from Xinghou's walls.



Such Tangut and Chinese regiments as remained unharmed by the purges, demobilisations and massacres of the past few years were inducted into the army but they were few in number and miserably unhappy as, it must be said, were most of the Khaganate's subjects though their complaints were mostly exaggerated - the Uighurs had harmed few ordinary people and life under them was no more harsh than it had been under the Tanguts.



In the Northern Chinese provinces of Huang and Ningsia, the locals accepted their new overlords with complete equanimity and continued to pay their proper taxes and send the levy which was asked of them.



Their time amongst the southerners had had quite an effect on the Uighurs. Though they would never become as weak or stupid as the Tanguts, they saw the attractions of a more certain lifestyle in which they, as the overlords, would live not by the hunt or their pastoral activities but from the fruits of their subjects' labours.



That, then, was how Hsi Hsia met its end and the Uighur Khaganate was born - in treachery, murder and avarice. The Korean Kingdom of Silla. Sokjong Wang, King of Silla. King Sokjong and his chief minister, Byung Yung Kim, set out from the comfortable capital on a diplomatic mission to the north - news had come of the increasing tensions between the Sung and the Liao, rumours of impending war and the overweening pride of Emperors.



In such days as these, Korea needed allies and Sokjong meant to find some. The King reached Suifenhe late in and immediately sought out the foremost of the local chieftains.



All of Sokjong's energies were put into securing the assistance of the clans that lived in this harsh coastal region; month after month, he travelled from village to encampment to township and back again seeking support and allies.



Yet, despite his widely-acknowledged gift for the diplomatic arts, despite his mastery of cunning language and arguments, he could not convince the local Khitan tribes to ally with him.



After several years of effort, all the King had to show for his troubles was a tentative agreement that the locals would not hinder his officials or soldiers should they need to pass through the region.



It was a stark disappointment. He arrived in the Spring of and visited almost every chieftain of note and many besides who were quite irrelevant but they treated him with contempt. Why should the free men who lived amid the wild forests between the mountain and the sea agree to become the lackeys of the city-dwelling, earth-tilling Korean weaklings?



The disappointed Byung Yung Kim met, in the end, with complete and abject failure; still, he counted his blessings - at least the locals had not killed him and one day, he was sure, he would return to civilisation and see the Court at Kai-Ching again.



The Prince had had quite enough of the constant bickering between the army and the court officials so both groups were pulled sharply into line - troublesome officers were cashiered, noisy ministers were dismissed - so that, within a short while, the whole Korean government was sharper, leaner and much more effective.



The army too was in better shape than ever before - more men under arms and better, more obedient officers. In this new atmosphere, people began to depend more on their family connexions for advancement instead of on their social class; while one's caste was still important, it was no longer the central aspect it had once been.



Instead, it was the favours given and duties performed by the members of one's family years before that guaranteed royal favour. The highest offices, titles, commissions and honours went to those great families which were judged most loyal to the Crown while other equally noble families came to be passed over because their commitment to the Koryo Kings was in doubt.



Yejong looked on all his work with satisfaction but he was not finished for, fearing that recent social problems had led to a downturn in the cultural endeavours of the nation, generous endownments were granted to local Buddhist philosophers and monks.



On the whole, despite the diplomatic failures, people in Korea noted a distinct new "feel" to their state - a sense of great energies expended, and more to come. The Thai Kingdom of Nan Chao.



The Malla Kingdom of Nepal. Mahendra Malla, King of Nepal. The Hindu Kingdom of Champa. The Khmer Empire of Kambuja. Dai Co Viet Annam. The Malay Empire of Sri Vijaya. The recent past had been hard on Sri Vijaya - wars, defeats, internal divisions had all conspired to push this once-great empire into a decline, to rob her of her place in the sun.



A brief civil war had ended only the previous year earlier bringing to the fore a new King, Nyalatengorak, "The Flaming Skull". No-one had high hopes for the new King - he was a stripling of only 21 years and a scholar to boot who had never once led an army into battle nor a fleet to raid across the High Seas.



So it was that Nyalatengorak's reign began with only the lowest expectations on the part of the subjects of Sri Vijaya yet the King had set himself the task of restoring the Empire to its rightful place of dominance and the year saw the beginnings of a new and vigorous policy as Sri Vijaya threw off the indolence of the past The Great King's first act was to raise a regiment of heavily-armoured foot soldiers and a smaller regiment of sappers numbering some four hundred skilled engineers and artificers ; to these forces, and the whole of the army and fleet, Nyalatengorak gave a special gift - they were to march, sail, fight beneath the King's personal flag, the Fanged Skull, an ancient symbol of power which the King had resurrected and made his own.



The chittering courtiers of Sri Vijaya were hardly surprised at what they believed was an attempt by the new King "the boy" as they called him when he wasn't around to hear to consolidate his hold on the military.



Having come to power through war, the King would surely move to crush his rivals which meant destroying his brother Hukumantaring and purging his supporters or so, at any rate, the court politicians said.



What happened next, therefore, was most surprising - Nyalatengorak summoned his brother, with great solemnity, handed over command of the whole fleet and army and set a task before him - the loyal Prince Hukumantaring was to go forth on campaign.



The primitive tribesmen of Aceh had retained their independence for too long. It was now time for them to bow before the power of Sri Vijaya. The courtiers sniggered; a thankless campaign against an unworthy enemy - surely a clear indication of the King's contempt for his sibling.



Doom Fang set out from the port of Sri Vijaya in March of, with a fleet numbering almost ships and an army of perhaps 10, men. It was a fiercesome armament indeed and the strongest put forth by Sri Vijaya for some time.



By July, Hukumantaring had put his full force ashore in Aceh and soon set about proving that, for all his countless deficiencies in intellect and scholarship, he was a peerless general.



The locals tribesmen could field more than 2, warriors of whom perhaps a third were equipped to fight in open warfare while the rest were local tribesmen bearing whatever inadequate weapons they could find.



What followed was bloody and predictable. For the remainder of the year, one wretched village after another was captured and forced to acknowledge the suzerainty of Nyalatengorak.



Resistance was crushed wherever it was offered and the local tribesmen achieved nothing. By the middle of, Hukumantaring had returned to Sri Vijaya where his brother, the King, welcomed him and all the people of the city feted him as a conquering hero.



Truly much praise was heaped upon the Prince's shoulders though Hukumantaring, an honest and simple man despite his royal blood, felt quite embarrassed by all the attention. Shortly afterwards, the Prince was married to the daughter of the distant Raja of Johor as part of an agreement to bring about closer relations see below ; the King, meanwhile, was married to the charming Javanese Princess Mahendradatta and, from that marriage, no less than three children were born in as many years - the first, a strong and healthy daughter, the second a sickly boy and the third another daughter but weak this time; she, lamentably, died within a week of her birth.



The King was greatly saddened but he and Mahendradatta found some solace in one another see Javan entry. While the northern campaign was being waged, the King had been busied himself with reorganising the government of the Empire.



As Sri Vijaya's Empire had increased, as more subject princes paid homage to the Malayu Great King, the ministries and officials of the central government had proved themselves unable to keep up with the task of administering the wide realm.



Nyalatengorak took matters in hand. New officials were recruited, incompetents were weeded out and new ministries were brought into being. To assist matters, grants of money were given to improve the capital's education system for it was a matter of shame that Sri Vijaya, once famed throughout the world as beacon of learning, was now known only for its bordellos and gambling dens.



In this way, then, competent men were trained and brought into the service of the government. Soon, tax collectors and royal agents were travelling the length and breadth of the Empire ensuring that all proper revenues were collected and that corruption among lower-ranking provincial officials was stamped out.



At this point, the courtiers began to get the message that the new King meant to change things for the better. Diplomats were sent forth from the capital - the court functionary Pembantantuan was sent to Java while Ikanbayang was dispatched to the Malay peninula to visit the client states and bring them more fully into the Empire.



His first stop was the province of Johor where the local Hindu Raja, for a long time a tributary of Sri Vijaya, was honoured when Ikanbayang requested a dynastic marriage to cement the close relations.



In due course, his youngest and prettiest daughter was sent off to become the bride of the warrior-prince Hukumantaring, the Doom Fang. Of course, in addition to feeling honoured, the Raja felt a distinct sense of trepidation as news was heard of the resurgent Sri Vijaya's campaign across the Straits of Malacca in Aceh.



The Raja got the distinct impression that the fierce army led by the Doom Fang might very easily be directed towards the peninsula. Faced with such a prospect, he decided it was far wiser to be a friend of Sri Vijaya than to be the next target for subjugation so he agreed to enter into a formal alliance, pledging himself and his forces to the service of the Great King of Sri Vijaya and acknowledging the formal overlordship of Nyalatengorak.



Ikanbayang's next stop on his diplomatic tour was the province of Kedah. Here, the various Buddhist princelings were less impressed and refused to surrender their independence though they were quite willing to acknowledge the right of the Great King to levy taxes on them.



For Ikanbayang, this was sufficient. He left the domain of the Kedah princes during the Spring of, safe in the knowledge that Sri Vijayan tax collectors would soon be crawling all over this rather disappointing province, and headed for the coastal city of Ligor - a small independent and predominantly Hindu port but an important economic partner.



Very little energy had to be expended to convince the locals that their interests lay in joining the Empire completely - their fate had long been tied to that of Sri Vijaya and, besides, absorption into the larger Sri Vijayan state offered considerable protection against the annoying Buddhist nobles of the interior who were a perpetual threat the city's existence.



That was how things stood in Sri Vijaya at the end of The Salendra Kingdom of Java. Kameswara I, Salendra King of Java. The Javans were afraid. News had reached them of the wide-ranging ambitions of the new Sri Vijayan King and, worse still, his envoy, Pembantantuan, was already en route.



Stories circulated in the capital of the massing in Sri Vijaya of a great war fleet and a grand army perhaps for some distant campaign or perhaps for an invasion of Java. Worst of all, those who spoke the Malay tongue of Sri Vijaya explained the meaning of "Pembantantuan" in hushed whispers - the word meant "Lord of Slaughter".



Far from surprising, then, that the coming of this new ambassador was met with anything except joy. In midsummer, a small ship flying the Fanged Skull penant that was the emblem of the King of Sri Vijaya docked in Sunda and there disembarked a very dapper short young man who announced with a smile that he was none other than Pembantantuan come to Sunda on a mission of peace.



In short order, the ambassador was presented to King Kameswara to whom he spoke winged words about the respect Nyalatengorak felt for his southern neighbour, about the need for peace between the Javans and Sumatrans, about how the fates of the two empires were intertwined and how nothing could be gained by conflict It almost seemed too good to be true and, daily, Kameswara and his ministers waited for the demands to start - territorial concessions, tribute, levies of men, perhaps more.



Yet the demands never came. Instead, the Lord of Slaughter announced to the Javan King and Court that his master, the Great King of Sri Vijaya, would be pleased and grateful if the Salendra King would consent to a treaty guaranteeing that neither signatory would make war upon the other.



Swiftly, Kameswara agreed and packed his daughter, a very pretty and endearing young lady, off to Sri Vijaya. One day, he hoped, his grandsons would sit on the thrones of both Sri Vijaya and Java but that was for the distant future - what mattered most was that Java's safety was guaranteed for at least a few more years.



Pembantantuan stayed on in Java for several years to come, becoming a permanent feature at the Golden Court at Sunda. He cut quite the dash around town. Plenty of Javanese ladies fluttered their eyelashes at the Lord of Slaughter and many a beau copied his Malay clothes and head-dress, some even going so far as to take lessons in the newly-fashionable Malay language.



The Kingdom of Pagan. Kyanzittha, King of Pagan. From his rich and temple-filled capital, the King struck out for Mon. The locals were far from pleased to see him for they well remembered the depredations which the Kings of Pagan had inflicted on them in the past - humiliations, enslavement, conquest, sword-point conversions to Buddhism.



The wounds Pagan had inflicted on Mon were deep and the memory was not going to be erased with any ease. Kyanzittha had soothing words and hard guarantees to offer the King of Mon but it was not enough to convince him that Pagan's intentions were honourable.



At last, Kyanzittha offered marriage as the means by which their old injuries might be healed and old scores settled; he would deign to wed the Princess Nilar, one of the myriad daughters of the King of Mon, as proof that he wished for Mon and Pagan to be united in peace.



His offer was accepted but, still, Mon would give no more to Pagan than a promise of safe passage for Burmese officials and armies. Kyanzittha was disappointed but, for the time being, it would have to do.



As it happened, the King was not the only one doing diplomatic duty - Prince Yarza Komer boarded a ship at Pegu and sailed all the way to Bihar to make common cause with the Pala Maharaja.



To the south, far across the sea and past the Straits of Malacca, Ambassador Ma Thida was sent to open relations with the new young King of Sri Vijaya. But it was not all diplomacy - during the Summer of, General Bohmu Aung, as vicious and ruthless a man as ever walked the earth, raised dozens of new regiments and marched, at the head of 12, men, over the mountains and into the rugged little region of Kayah.



The natives were scarcely capable of defending themselves and were smacked into line with ease. In the aftermath of this "conquest", 10 strong castles were built in the area before the General pulled back into Thaton leaving the locals to wonder what had just happened and why.



The Pala Kingdom of Bengal. Rampala, Maharaja of Bengal. From east and west, the Hindus were pressing in upon Rampala. He was distinctly nervous and fully expected an assault at any time; it was, therefore, rather lucky for him that the Muslims of the far west chose this time to begin rattling their sabres.



So long as the western Hindu princes were busy trying to defend against these expected incursions, they would be unable to harm Bengal. No attacks came though there was a very real increase in brigandage and dacoitry throughout Gaur which led some to wonder whether Hindus from Assam were sneaking across the Brahmaputra to rob and murder.



Of course, no-one could substantiate this theory. As time passed, ambassadors came to the thriving metropolis of Bihar from the Tamil Cholas far to the south and from Buddhist Pagan.



Their entreaties were heard and agreements were made and signed; all of this was fine but still the Senas made no attack and the Palas grew ever more anxious - Rampala and many others in Bihar wished that the accursed Assamese would hurry and make their move instead of keeping the whole of Bengal on tenterhooks.



At length, and to the shock of the Pala court, it was not warriors but ambassadors who arrived in Bihar from Hindu Assam. They sailed to Bihar up the Ganges, sacred to Hindus, and presented themselves before the palace of the Maharaja stating that they bore a message of great import from their master Vijaya Sena Raja.



Upon admittance to the august presence of His Majesty, the Maharaja, the envoys proved themselves arrogant, obnoxious little men, puffed up by their imagined importance.



Having been brought before the Maharaja, they paid him none of the traditional courtesies which are normal even between hostile countries; threats poured forth from the mouth of the lead 'diplomat': Surrender your throne and turn over the lands you now oppress.



Flee away to Tibet where you belong! India is a Hindu land and your kind has no place in it. Rampala was generally level-headed and patient so he paused before responding lest he act in the heat of the moment and come to regret it later.



So it was said and so it was done! All the Assamese envoys were put to death and their skulls were used to decorate the the Maharaja's throne. Rampala decided there was only one option left open to him - he had to take advantage of the distraction the Ghaznavids were affording and of the pacific nature of the wise Raja of Kanauj, who was, in Rampala's judgment, unlikely to trouble himself over the fate of the Assamese.



The Palas would crush the Sena upstarts once and for all. In, the Bengali general, Mushara, marched forth to liberate Palas Whilst this war was being fought, word was brought to Bengal of the boy King of Sri Vijaya.



It is not at all clear where the rumours began but, by an by, word penetrated every part of Bihar and everyone in the land knew the story - the Sri Vijayan was said to be a deviant with the most disgusting predilections - such as no respectable person could ever repeat - and, worse, it was reported that Nyalatengorak had been casting his eyes north and had sent his sordid slaving agents to acquire Bengali children for purposes that could only be guessed at.



This was too much for the glorious Rampala who, buoyed with the righteousness of his cause, at once declared war on the Sri Vijayan Empire. Bengal would fight not only the Hindus of Assam but their brother Buddhists and, in each case, it would be an honourable war!



The War for Bengal. Mushara set out from Gaur at the head of around 14, Buddhist warriors of whom almost half were mounted. Before he had even crossed the frontier, news came of uprising - the Buddhist population, tired of languishing beneath the Sena yoke, had risen up and begun slaughtering the oppressor.



The rebellious Buddhists had even managed to take a few of the enemy's castles. Encouraged, Mushara moved into Palas. When news of the rebellion reached Assam, Vijaya, Raja of the Senas, had begun to move out with an army which numbered a little over 11, but, upon hearing of Mushara's invasion, he stopped and rethought his strategy.



He knew that his castles would be a tough nut for any enemy to crack. Why not, he reasoned, let the Buddhists bleed themselves on the walls? He reasoned that the Buddhists, probably already weakened by the need to reduce so many strong fortifications, might be caught between the Sena relief force and the enraged garrisons sallying forth.



Such was Vijaya's theory, in any case. The whole of Mushara's Buddhist Bengali army had now crossed into Palas where they were welcomed as liberators from Hindu oppression. Mushara's scouts reported that many of the Hindu forts in the region had already fallen to local Buddhist rebels.



Some had even been infiltrated by Bengali agents and their local Buddhist collaborators who ensured that convenient gates and portes were left open for Mushara's men. In the end, the 20 or so castles that defended this region proved to be no impediment at all to the Bengali advance.



The handful that were unaffected by the rebellion were swiftly overrun by Mushara's preponderance of engineers and sappers. When this news reached Vijaya, he summoned his officers and ministers and demanded to know why his own agents had failed to crush this rebellion before it got off the ground.



The answer namely that his agents had tried very hard but, lamentably, failed in their task brought the Sena Raja no satisfaction. Now there was no other option but to engage the enemy and drive them back by main force.



With the rest of Palas effectively his control, Mushara had been turning his mind to the question of Sonargaon, a very well fortified and predominantly Hindu city.





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